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NEW-ZKUiaNt) 

Mams -am m 

BUTTERFLIES' 



NEW ZEALAND 

MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES. 



"The rearing of larvae, . . . when joined with the entomological collection, adds immense interest to 
Saturday afternoon rambles, and forms an admirable introduction to the study of physiology." 

Herbert Spencer, in 'Education.' 



" When simple curiosity passes into the love of knowledge as such, and the gratification of the aesthetic 
sense of the beauty of completeness and accuracy seems more desirable than the easy indolence of ignorance ; 
when the finding out of the causes of things becomes a source of joy, and he is counted happy who is successful 
in the search ; common knowledge of Nature passes into what our forefathers called Natural History, from 
whence there is but a step to that which used to be termed Natural Philosophy, and now passes by the 
name of Physical Science." 

Thomas Henry Huxley, in ' The Crayfish.' 



"It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds 
singing on the bushes, with various insects Hitting about, and with worms crawling through the dam}) earth, 
and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent upon each 
other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us. These laws, taken in the 
largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; Inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; 
Variability from the indirect and direct action of the conditions of life, and from use and disuse : a Ratio 
of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, 
entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of Nature, 
from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production 
of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, 
having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one ; and that, whilst this planet 
has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most 
beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved." 

Darwin, in 'The Origin of Species.' 



0*1 



NEW ZEALAND 
MOTHS AND BUTTERFLIES 



(MACRO-LEPIDOPTEKA). 



G. V. HUDSON, P.E.S., 

Author of ' An Elemental!/ Manual of Neiu Zealand Entomology. 



WITH 13 PLATES. 



LONDON : 
WEST, NEWMAN & Co., 54, HATTON GARDEN, E.G. 



/ 



<? 






PEE FACE. 



The present work is intruded as a guide to those who desire to collect or study 
our native Lepidnptera, and also as a book of reference to the general leader. 

In the Introduction I have first given an outline of the Transformations and 

Structure of the Lepidoptera. Then a brief sketch of the Darwinian th ies respecting 

the origin of species and their special application to various phenomena exhibited by 
moths and butterflies, as well as a short outline of the general principles which have 
been followed in framing modern classifications oi the order. Next follow five chapters 
on the various groups de-alt with. 

With a few exceptions this work only treats of what are, for the sake of convenience, 
termed the Macro-Lepidnptera. A similar work on the numerous and interesting species 
of Micrn-Lepidoptera found in New Zealand may at some future time he undertaken. 

In conclusion, I have to discharge the pleasurable duty of thanking the numerous 
entomologists who have so liberally assisted me in the production of this work. First, 
and especially, my thanks are due to Mr. Meyrick, without whose masterly papers 
and 'Handbook' hut little could have been accomplished. Next, to Mi'. R. \Y. 
Fereday, who very kindly allowed me to figure many species of which he alone 
possesses specimens — in itself an invaluable assistance. 1 have also to express my 
thanks to Messrs. H. F. Hawthorne, H. P. Hanif'y, li. I. Kingsley, A. Nonas, A. Philpott, 
and others for the loan of specimens, and for much valuable information regarding the 
localities and habits of rare or local species. Lastly, I have to acknowledge the aid so 
willingly given by my lamented friend, the late Mr. A. S. Ullifi, of Sydney. 



Kabobi, Wellington, 

New Zealand, 
1897. 




CONTENTS 



[NTRODUCTIO 



THK CAliADlHXINA 



THE N'OTODONTINA 



THE PAPILIONINA 



THE PSYCHIJs \ 



THE MK K<>1'TKKY(.I\A iimkt oxi 



APPENDIX (Oksc Kirnvi 



GENERAL INDEX 



SPECIAL INDEX 



PLATES AND EXPLANATIONS 



INTEODUCTION. 



The order Lepidoptera, which includes all those insects commonly known as Moths 
and Butterflies, is chiefly distinguished by its members possessing four wings clothed with 
numerous minute scales, the term Lepidoptera being derived from the two Greek words, 
X«n'e, a scale, and irrepov, a wing. The mouth of these insects is suctorial, the maxillae 
forming a spiral proboscis which is coiled up between the large labial palpi when not in 
use (sec Plate I., Jigs. 5 and (i). The other oral organs are rudimentary. To acquire 
this form these insects pass through three very distinct stages, viz., the Egg, the Larva, 
and the Pupa. 

1.— yJPTAMOBPHOSIS. 

THE EGG. 

The eggs of Lepidoptera are generally somewhat globular, much flattened above 
and beneath. Some are very elaborately sculptured, whilst others are quite smooth. 
They are usually white or yellowish, but always change much in colour as the 
contained embryo develops. 

THE LARVA. 

The larvaa of moths and butterflies are popularly known as caterpillars. They 
always consist of thirteen segments, segment number one being the head. The 
head is furnished with several simple eyes (Plate 1., fig. 2, AA), a pair of very short 
antennas (BB), and a very powerful masticatory mouth. The mouth consists of the 
following organs: The labrum, or upper lip (1); a pair of mandibles, or upper jaws, 
working like scissor-blades (-2, -2) ; two maxilla?, or lower jaws (3,3), each carrying a 
jointed organ termed the maxillary palpus; and the labium, or lower lip (4); which 
bears another pair of minute jointed appendages — the labial palpi. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4, which answer to the thorax of the perfect insect, are each 
furnished with a pair of legs. They consist of the six following joints (fig. 2) : (a) coxa, 
(b) trochanter, (c) femur, (</) tibia, (e) tarsus, and (/) claw. These legs correspond to 
those of the perfect insect. The remaining nine segments of the body constitute the 
abdomen. Usually segments 7 to 9 and 13, each have a pair of fleshy pads, which are 
termed prolegs and are furnished on their edges with a row of minute booklets (see 
Plate I., fig. 14, proleg highly magnified). It is these hooklets which enable caterpillars 
to hold on by means of their prolegs with such great tenacity. The number of the 
prolegs varies considerably in different groups and families. 

The ■■spiracles, or orifices of the air-tubes, are situated on each side of the larva just 
above the legs. They are usually present on segments 2 and 5 to 12, but vary consider- 



x INTRODUCTION. 

ably in different groups and families. The larva is provided with a very complete 
digestive system, which consists of the following organs (see Plate I., fig. 9) : A, the 
oesophagus ; D, the ventriculus ; F, the clavate intestine ; E, the ilium ; H, the colon ; 
K, the biliary vessels ; and 0, the spinning vessels. These last open at a small orifice in 
the labium termed the spinneret (fig. 2, 5). They supply the silken threads which are 
employed by most larvae in constructing their cocoons, and which also serve in cases of 
danger as a rapid means of retreat. Many larva-, which live on shrubs and trees, suddenly 
lower themselves to the ground by means of one of these silken threads, and thus often 
escape being devoured by insectivorous animals. 

The entire growth of the insect is accomplished during the larval condition, the 
increase in size being frequently very rapid. Owing to this circumstance larva' are often 
compelled to shed their skin, and in many species a very considerable alteration both in 
the shape and colour takes place at each moult, or eedysis as it is sometimes termed. 

THE PUPA. 

The pupa of a Lepidopterous insect is completely encased in a chitinous 
envelope. With the exception of a slight twirling of the abdominal segments it is 
incapable of any motion. In the pupa of Micropteryx the mandibles and Labial palpi 
are said to be functionally active, but this is a very exceptional though extremely 
interesting case. In conjunction with other evidence it would appear to indicate that the 
Lepidoptera originated from insects with active pupae. The number of free or movable 
segments of pupa' varies considerably in different groups and genera, and by some 
modern authors it is regarded as a character of much importance in the framing of their 
classifications. The various organs of the perfect insect are distinctly marked out 
on the otherwise uniform integument of the pupa. In some groups, notably the 
Micropterygina, these organs are much more distinctly indicated than in others. 

II.— ANATOMY. 

THE PERFECT INSECT OP IMAGO. 
In common with all other members of the class, the body of a Lepidopterous insect 
consists of three main divisions : (1) the head, (-J) the thorax, and (3) the abdomen. 

THE HEAD. 

The front of the head is termed the face, the top the crown, the sides are nearly 
entirely occupied by the compound eyes (Plate I., H^;. 11, AA), and the lower surface 
by the organs of the mouth. 

The Eyes consist of a very large number of simple lenses arranged in the form of two 
hemispheres, one on each side of the head. The ocelli, or simple eyes, are situated on 
the crown, and are usually almost entirely covered by scales. 

The Antrim,*' are two jointed appendages attached to the top of the head above the 
eyes. They vary very much in structure. The following are the terms used in 
de i idling the different forms ol antenna 1 in the Lepidoptera : — 

1. Pectinated, when the joints have long processes like the teeth of a comb, [f 
these are .a: one side only, the antenna; are iinipectinated; if on both sides, bipectinated. 
(Plate I., lig. 20, bipectinated antenna of Nyctemera annulata.) 

■1. Dentate, when the joints are armed with slight pointed spines. 



INTRODUCTION. m 

3. Serrate, when the joints have sharp projections like the teeth of a saw. (Fig. is, 
antenna of Melanchra composita.) 

4. Filiform, when the whole antenna is simple or thread-like. (Fig. 1!), antenna of 
Epirranthis alectoraria.) 

The clothing of the antenna' also varies, and is distinguished as under: 

1. Ciliated, when clothed with one or two series of short, fine hairs. 

•1. Fasciculate-ciliated, when the hairs are collected into tufts. (Fig. 17, antenna of 

Cllloroclljstis idinthilUl.) 

3. Pubescent, when the antenna- are clothed with uniform short hairs. (Fig. 19.) 

The functions of the antenna' are still a matter of dispute amongst entomologists. 
The majority of the older naturalists regarded them as organs of hearing. The antenna' 
are almost always more fully developed in the male than in the female. From this 
circumstance many modern entomologists consider that one of their functions is to enable 
the former to find the latter. 

The organs of the mouth are thus distinguished : — 

1. The Labrum, or upper lip (Plate 1., fig. 11, I), a minute rudimentary plate 
situated in front immediately above the proboscis. 

•J. The Mandibles, or upper jaws (m.m), two minute sickle-shaped organs situated 
just below the labrum, also rudimentary. 

:',. The Proboscis, or Haustellum (c), a tubular extensible organ formed of the 
two maxilla 1 , or lower jaws, which have become greatly elongated, semi-tubular, and closely 
pressed together al the edges, but separable at the will of the insect -a structure which 
enables the organ to be easily cleansed when necessary, and is extremely interesting as 
indicating so clearly the true development of the proboscis from the maxilla'. 

The Ma.rillaru palpi (p.p) are two jointed organs attached to the base of the 
proboscis and very frequently rudimentary, but fully developed amongst certain of the 
Micro-Lepidoptera. 

The Labium, or lower lip, is situated below the proboscis and carries the Labial palpi 

(figs. •") and 6), two large jointed organs which are very conspicuous in nearly all the 

species and often quite conceal the maxillary palpi. They are usually regarded as organs of 

touch, but their true function does not seem to be properly understood. In the Lepidoptera 

they appear to protect the proboscis, which, when out of use, is always coiled up in a spiral 

between them. The labrum and mandibles can only be seen by removing the large labial 

palpi. 

THE THORAX 

carries the organs of locomotion, which consist of two pairs of wings attached to its 

sides, and three pairs of legs attached beneath, a pair belonging to each of the three 

segments of which the thorax is composed. On the front of the thorax there are two 

flap-like organs covered with scales, termed the patagia. 

The Wings vary greatly in shape, but usually they are triangular. The portion of the 

wing which joins on to the thorax is termed the base. The front margin is called the 

costa, the outer margin the termen, and the lower margin the dorsum, these being described 

as situated when the wing is extended in flight. The angle between the costa and termen 

* This organ is termed the tongue by Mr. Meyrick. As many mandibulate insects possess a true tongue, and 
the proboscis of the Lepidoptera is not homologous with the tongue, but with the maxilla'. I think the term is very 
misleading. 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

is called the apex, and the angle between the tennen and the dorsum the tornus (see 
Plate I., fig. 1). The tennen and dorsum are edged with a fringe of hair-like scales, termed 
the cilia. At the base of the hind-wings is generally situated a stiff bristle, or several stiff 
hairs, called the frenulum, the ends of which pass through a chitinous process on the 
under side of the fore-wing near the dorsum. This process is termed the retinaculum, and 
serves, in conjunction with the frenulum, to lock the wings together during flight. In 
the female both these organs are often very imperfectly developed, the frenulum consisting 
of several bristly hairs, and the retinaculum of a group of stiff scales. In many of the 
Lepidoptera both frenulum and retinaculum are entirely wanting. 

"In the Micropterygina, a membranous or spine-like process called the jug um rises 
from the dorsum of the fore-wing near the base and passes under the hind-wing, which is 
thus held between the process and the overlapping portion of the fore-wing." -(Meyrick.) 

The veins of the wings are thus described by Mr. Meyrick : — 

"The wings are traversed by a system of Veins — tubular structures which serve at 
once as extensions of the tracheal system, and to form a stiff framework for the support of 
the wing. In the normal type of Lepidoptera the fore-wings possess three free veins 
towards the dorsum, termed In, lb, and \c ; a central cell, out of which rise ten veins, 
numbered 2 to 11, the sides of the cell being known as the upper median, lower median, 
and transverse veins respectively; and a free subcostal vein, numbered L2 ; whilst the 
hind-wings differ from the fore-wings in having only six veins rising from the central cell, 
numbered 2 to 7, so that the free subcostal vein is numbered 8 (see Plate I., tigs. 3 and I, 
assumed type of neuration of a Lepidopterous insect). In some forms a forked parting- 
vein traverses the middle of the cell longitudinally, and a second parting-vein traverses the 
upper portion, so as to form a secondary cell ; but these are more frequently absenf or 
represented only by folds in the membrane, in a few forms there is a tendency to the 
production of several false veins, termed pseudoneuria, appearing as short branches from 
the subcostal vein of the hind-wings to the costa ; these are thickenings of the membrane, 
and are commonly very irregular and variable, often uneven in thickness or incomplete. 
Sometimes one of these near the base is better developed and more permanent in 
character; it is then termed the prcecostal s/mr (see Plate I., tigs. 8 9 and 27"). Modi- 
fications in the general arrangement of the veins may arise through any of the following 
processes, viz.: (1) obsolescence, when a vein loses its normal tubular structure, becoming 
attenuated and reduced in substance, until it appears a mere fold of the membrane (Plate 
II., fig. 60, vein 5 in hind-wings of Selidosema) ; (2) stalking, when the two veins are fused 
together for a portion of their length from their base, so as to appear to rise on a common 
stalk (Plate II., fig. 34, veins 6 and 7 in hind-wing of Hydriomena) ; (3) coincidence, when 
two veins are fused together for the whole of their length, so that one appeal's entirely 
absent, an extreme form of stalking; (4) anastomosis, when two veins rise separate, meet, 
and are fused together for a certain distance, and then separate again (Plate II., fig. 23, 
veins 7 and 8 in the hind-wings of the ? of Tatosoma); (5) concurrence, when a vein 
rises separate, runs into another, and does not separate again, an extreme form of 
anastomosis; ((J) connection, when two veins are connected by a short transverse bar 
passing from one to the other, a special form of anastomosis, evolved from the ordinai'3 
form undor the influence of a tendency to lateral extension (Plate II., ri.14. 28, veins 
7 and 8 in hind-wing of Paradetis). Vein lb in both wings is often furcate at the base. 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

" The type of veins in the Micropterygina differs from that described above in 
two essential particulars, viz. : (1) there may be three additional veins in the fore-wings, 
rising out of vein 11 or 12 ; and (2) the veins of the hind-wings are practically identical 
in number and structure with those of the fore-wings, being thus much more numerous 
than in the ordinary type. There is also often a system of cross-bars between the veins 
near the base of the wing (Plate I., figs. 22 and 23, neuration of Hepialus). 

"The structure of the veins can be best observed on the under surface of the wing, 
where they are more prominent. The student should begin by completely denuding of 
scales a few wings of common species : the wing should be cut off and laid on a moistened 
piece of glass, to which it will adhere ; the scales should then be removed, first from one 
surface and then from the other, with a, fine, moist camel's-hair brush — an operation 
requiring a little patience and delicacy of touch ; the veins will thus be rendered con- 
spicuous.* When, however, the student has familiarised himself with the general subject, it 
will not be found necessary in practice to resort to this process ; most details will be easily 
observed without denudation t ; where this is not the case (as where the veins are closely 
crowded or otherwise obscured), the scales can be removed with the brush on the under 
surface in the locality of the difficulty only, without cutting off the wing or otherwise 
damaging the specimen, which remains in the collection available for all purposes as 
before ; with proper practice, even the smallest species are amenable to this treatment, 
which does not require more skill than the actual setting of the specimen. Some workers 
prefer to put a drop of benzine on the spot, which renders it temporarily transparent ; the 
effect is short-lived, as the benzine evaporates rapidly, and the cilia (if long) are liable to 
be damaged by this method." 

The Legs consist of the following joints (see Plate 1., tig. 21) : (1) coxa, (2) trochanter, 
(3) femur, (4) tibia, (5) tarsus, (li) claw. The tarsus normally consists of five joints, 
but is more or less aborted when the leg is not employed for walking. The spines 
(SS) on the tibiae of the several legs vary considerably in size and number. They 
are often useful to the systematist for purposes of classification. 

THE ABDOMEN 

consists of nine segments, some of which are often fused together. It contains the 
various internal organs, of which the most important are those of Digestion and 
Reproduction. The Digestive Hystem (Plate I., fig. 10) consists of the following organs: 
A, the cesophagtts, or throat; C, the sucking stomach; 1), the ventriculus or stomach ; 
E,the small intestine; G, the ccecum ; H, the colon ; K, the biliary vessels; N, the salivary 
vessels. The function of the sucking stomach is to exhaust the air in the throat and 
proboscis, and thus to cause the ascent of the fluids into the stomach when the insect is 
feeding. 

III.— ORIGIN OF SPECIES. 

The theory of the origin of species as propounded by Darwin may be thus very 
briefly summarised : — 



* For the examination of the wings taken from dried specimens. I have found that immersion in methylated spirits 
renders the veins visible after partial denudation with the camel's hair brush. With recent specimens, however, the 
scales can easily be entirely removed. 

f I have found considerable difficulty and uncertainty in examining the neuration of undenuded specimens. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

Vamation. — No two organisms are exactly alike ; there is always some variation 
from the parent form, in some cases very slight, in others considerable. (For examples 
of variation see Plate VII., tigs. 1 to 9, varieties of Hydriomena deltoidata; Plate VIIL, 
figs. 4-2 to 47, varieties of Epirranthis alectoraria; Plate IX., figs 6 to 14, varieties of 
Selidosema productata; Plate X., figs. 13 to 23, varieties of Azelina gallaria; Plate X., 
figs. 39 to 47, varieties of Declaim fioccosa.) 

Inheritance. — Many of these variations are inherited — a fact demonstrated by our 
domestic plants and animals, where man has selected and bred from varieties suitable 
for his purposes, and has thus produced races in which the variation is permanent. 
Many of the races of domestic animals differ as much from one another as do some 
distinct species of wild animals. 

Struggle for Existence. — All animals and plants produce far more offspring than 
can possibly survive, thus giving rise to the struggle for existence. For example : The 
average number of eggs laid by a Lepidopterous insect is certainly over 100, and in 
many species this number is greatly exceeded. Assuming each female to lay 100 eggs, 
the progeny from a single pair would amount, after six generations, to over six 
million individuals. 

Natural Selection, or the Survival of the Fittest. — In the struggle for existence 
which necessarily results from such a great increase of individuals, those variations which 
favoured the possessors would be preserved, whilst those which did not, would be gradually 
exterminated. This principle of the preservation of the favourable varieties in the 
struggle for life is called Natural Selection, or the Survival of the Fittest. 

Divergence of Character. — As there are so many different places and conditions 
in the economy of nature which can be occupied by organic beings differently constituted, 
individuals which diverged most from the original type would be brought into less severe 
competition, than those which diverged only in a slight degree. For instance, if we 
represent the original form as A, occupying one place in the economy of nature ; a 
second form as B, occupying a somewhat similar place ; a third form as C, occupying 
a very different place to A although somewhat similar place to B, it is obvious that 
B would enter into severe competition with both A and C, whilst A and C might not 
trend to any great extent on one another's place in the natural economy ; hence B 
would be exterminated before either A or C. In other words, natural selection 
continually tends to increase the slight differences, which we call varieties, into the 
greater differences, which we call species. 

The following phenomena, which have long been observed by students of the 
Lepidoptera, will serve as excellent examples of the operation of natural selection : — 

Protective Besemblance. — This term is applied to those classes of form or colour 
which enable an animal to so closely resemble its surroundings as to escape the notice 
of its enemies. Numerous examples of protective resemblance exist in the New Zealand 
moths and butterflies; in fact, it may safely be asserted that nearly all the colouring 
we observe in these insects has been acquired for protective purposes. The following 
species, amongst many others which will he described hereafter, exhibit in a very 
marked degree the phenomenon of protective resemblance : Epirranthis alectoraria, 
Selidosema dejectaria, and Drepaiwdes murlferata resemble dead leaves; Chloroclystis 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

bilineolata, Tatosoma agrionata, and Erana graminosa resemble, when at rest, patches 
of moss; Selidosema productata and N. lupinata resemble the bark of trees; 
Chloroclystis lichenodes, Declaim floccosa, and Elvia glmicata resemble variously 
coloured lichens. It is almost unnecessary to point out that all those variations, 
which tended to conceal the possessors from their enemies, would be preserved in the 
struggle for existence, and that these numerous and perfect instances of protective 
resemblance would inevitably result from the operation of natural selection. The 
dark colouration of Alpine and Arctic Lepidoptera, which enables them to rapidly 
absorb heat during the short and fitful gleams of sunshine experienced on mountains 
or in high latitudes, is also an instance of adaptation to conditions through the 
influence of natural selection. This was first pointed out by Lord Walsingham in 
1885. The almost complete absence of white species in these localities is a good 
example of the extinction of forms unfitted to their surroundings. 

Contrast Colours. — In this class of colouring the fore-wings only are protectively 
coloured, the hind-wings being very conspicuous. Contrast colouring is well exemplified 
by several of the insects included in the genus Notoreas. The sudden exhibition of the 
hind-wings during flight dazzles the eye of the pursuer. When the insect immediately 
afterwards closes its wings and the fore-wings alone are visible, it is extremely difficult to 
see. This form of protective colouring was also first drawn attention to by Lord 
Walsingham. (See page 75.) 

Warning Colours. — Insects, which are unfit for food or nauseous, are not protectively 
coloured, but on the contrary are rendered as conspicuous as possible. This class of 
colouring is well illustrated by one of our commonest moths, Nyctemera annulata 
(PI. IV., figs. 1 and - 2). The principle of warning colours was first discovered by Mr. 
A. R. Wallace, and is graphically described in Professor Poulton's entertaining work, 
'The Colours of Animals.' The possession of nauseous qualities would be of little value 
to an insect, unless it could be at once recognised by insectivorous animals and avoided as 
food. If a nauseous insect were not easily identified it would speedily be destroyed by 
what Professor Poulton ingeniously terms "experimental tasting"; hence, through the 
process of natural selection, all nauseous species have become very conspicuously coloured. 
It may be remarked that warning colours are extremely rare amongst the New Zealand 
species, and I am not aware of any other example than that already given. 

Mimicry. — This term is applied to those remarkable cases where a harmless or edible 
species imitates in form and colouring a highly armed or nauseous species. No instances 
of this extremely interesting class of protection are yet known amongst the New Zealand 
Lepidoptera, but a very perfect example of mimicry exists between two common intro- 
duced species of Hymenoptera and Diptera, the well-known honey-bee and the drone-fly. 
The superficial resemblance between these two insects is very close. The bee, as 
every one knows, is armed with a powerful sting, whilst the drone-fly is unarmed. 
In this case it can be seen that if a harmless insect varied in the direction of 
resembling a formidable or objectionable species it would be a decided advantage to it, 
and such varieties would tend to be continually preserved and improved, through the 
operation of natural selection. The subject of mimicry has been alluded to here as it is 
not impossible that some instances of it may yet be discovered in connection with our 
native Lepidoptera. 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

Ornamental Colouring. — This class of colouring occurs in many species, especially 
amongst the butterflies, and is not apparently connected in any way with protection. 
Darwin supposes that it has arisen through the females of each species always selecting 
the most beautiful males as mates, hence these alone would leave progeny, and the 
females themselves would afterwards become beautiful through the effects of inheritance. 
This principle Darwin has termed Sexual Selection, and has discussed it in great detail 
in his work on the 'Descent of Man.' The fact, that amongst birds and butterflies the 
males are nearly always the most brilliantly coloured and the most beautiful, together 
with an immense mass of other evidence, tends, I think, to entirely support Darwin's 
theory, although it should be mentioned that several eminent naturalists, including Mr. 
Wallace, do not admit the principle of Sexual Selection. 

IV.— CLASSIFICATION. 

From a further consideration of the foregoing principles it will be seen that all 
existing species are held to be descended by true generation from pre-existing species, 
and that, consequently, all the relationships we observe between species are explained 
by community of origin. The most natural system of classification is, therefore, that 
which best reveals the scheme of descent, or, as it is termed, the phylogeny, of the 
group of organisms classified. To construct a perfect system of classification on these 
principles a knowledge of not only all the existing species of Lepidoptera would be 
essential, but also of all the extinct species, and it is needless to say that such 
knowledge is quite unattainable. Nevertheless large numbers of species are now 
known from many parts of the world, and a very extensive collection has recently 
been employed by Mr. Meyrick in framing a classification of the Lepidoptera, which 
is, to the best of my belief, the first constructed on strictly Darwinian principles. 
Although adopting Mr. Meyrick's system in the present work I do not agree unre- 
servedly with all his conclusions ; but I have not attempted to alter his system in 
accordance with my own views, as I conceive that the conclusions of a naturalist, 
who has only had the opportunity of studying a restricted fauna, would necessarily be 
liable to considerable error. 

The general principles on which Mr. Meyrick has founded his system are practically 
those laid down by Darwin in his ' Origin of Species,' and may be thus summarised : — 

A. Resemblances between all organisms are explained by community of origin, the 
amount of difference representing the amount of modification and expressible in the 
classification as varieties, species, genera, families, groups, orders, &c. The amount of 
difference does not ncccxsarih/ bear any direct relation to time, many forms remaining 
almost stationary whilst others are undergoing development. 

B. By a consideration of the following laws the age of a division can be approxi- 
mately arrived at; that is to say, its position in the great genealogical tree of the 
Lepidoptera can be, to some extent, determined: — 

" (1) No new organ can be produced except as a modification of some previously 
existing structure. 

" (2) A lost organ cannot be regained. 

" (3) A rudimentary organ is rarely redeveloped." — (Meyrick.) 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

C. The greatest care is necessary to avoid being misled by adaptive characters, i.e., 
characters which are very important to the welfare of the species, and hence much modified 
through the agency of natural selection. A familiar instance of superficial resemblance, 
due to the presence of similar adaptive characters, may be observed in fishes and whales, 
where two groups of animals with but little real relationship have, through living under 
similar conditions, become extremely like each other in external appearance. Other 
examples might be given amongst exotic Lepidoptera. Thus, many noxious species are 
closely mimicked by harmless forms which are often far removed from them in real 
affinity. These cases of adaptive resemblances abound amongst all organisms, and have 
often deceived experienced naturalists. It is in consequence of the illusive nature of 
these external resemblances amongst different members of the Lepidoptera, that the 
structure of the neuration of the wings is now considered of such great importance as 
a character for purposes of classification. The numerous modifications in the position 
of the veins and their presence or absence in certain groups can, so far as we are able 
to see, have had very little effect on the well-being of those insects possessing such 
modifications. Hence it may fairly be assumed, that these structures have been free 
from the influence of natural selection for a very lengthened period. It is thus contended 
that the neuration of a Lepidopterous insect probably reveals more plainly than any 
other character its true relationship with other species. 

The descent of all the Lepidoptera from some ancient member of the Triehoptera 
(or caddis-flies) is thus proved, according to Mr. Meyrick : — 

" From a consideration of the laws enunciated above, there can be no doubt that 
the Micropterygina are the ancestral group of the Lepidoptera, from which all others 
have descended ; this is sufficiently proved by the existence of the four or more 
additional veins in the hind-wings of that group, for these veins, if not originally 
present, could not have been afterwards produced. Of the two families of that group, 
the Micropterygidce, which possess an additional vein (or veins) in the fore-wings, 
and fully developed six-jointed maxillary palpi, must be more primitive than the 
Hepialidce. Now if the neuration of the whole of the Lepidoptera is compared with 
that of all other insects, it will be found that in no instance is there any close 
resemblance, except in the case of the Micropterygidce ; but the neuration of these 
so closely approaches that of certain Triehoptera (caddis-flies) as to be practically 
identical. The conclusion is clear, that the Lepidoptera are descended from the 
Triehoptera, and that the Micropterygidce are the true connecting link. If the other 
marked structural characters of the Micropterygidce are taken into consideration, 
viz., the possession of the jugum, the large development of the maxillary palpi as 
compared with the labial, and the sometimes functionally active mandibles, they will 
be all found commonly in the Triehoptera, affording additional confirmation. It may 
be added that in one New Zealand species of Micropterygidce {Palceomicra chalcopJianes) 
vein 16 is basally trifurcate, a character frequent in the Triehoptera, but not yet 
discovered in any other Lepidopteron. In most Triehoptera the veins of the hind- 
wings are much more numerous than those of the fore-wings, in the Micropterygina 
they are usually equal in number, in other Lepidoptera they are less numerous ; in 
the course of descent there has therefore been a greater progressive diminution in 
the number of veins of the hind-wings as compared with those of the fore-wings, 
though these also have diminished, 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

"It is unnecessary to trace back the descent of the Lepidoptera further; but it 
may be worth while to point out that we may assume as the primitive type of 
Trichopterous neuration, a system of numerous longitudinal veins gradually diverging 
from the base, mostly furcate terminally, and connected by a series of irregularly placed 
cross-bars near base, and another series beyond middle." 

The following is Mr. Meyriek's method of arrangement, which has been adopted 
in this book : — 

" The natural order of arrangement, which is that of a much-branched tree, 
cannot be adequately expressed by a simple linear succession, such as is alone 
practicable in a book. It is, however, possible to devise a linear succession which 
shall be consistent with the natural genealogical order, if some additional explanation 
can be given. The method here adopted is as follows: — 

" Suppose the accompanying diagram represents a portion of the genealogical tree ; 
then the order will begin at M and descend to K, recommence at L and descend 
to K, and thence to G, recommence at H and descend 
to G, and thence to B, recommence at F and descend to 
D, recommence at E and descend to D and thence to 13, 
recommence at C and descend to B and thence to A, and 
so on. Thus the order begins with the most recently 
developed forms and descends gradually to the earliest 
or most ancestral, which are the last in the book. To 
understand the order in practice, it may be assumed that 
each genus • is descended from that which immediately 
follows it in the book, unless its actual descent is expressly 
stated otherwise ; such statement will, of course, require to 
be made before every recommencement of a fresh branch. 

This system has been adhered to throughout, and after a little use will not be found 
unintelligible. If adopted in the arrangement of a collection in the cabinet, it would 
be a good plan to indicate the recommencement of a fresh branch by a special mark, 
such as a red bar drawn above the first (or highest) species." 



Phylogeny of Lepidoptera. (After Meyrick.) 

Notodontina Papilionina 

Caradrinina Lasiocampina Pyralidina 
l_ I I 

Psychina Tortricina 

I I 

I 

Tineina 

I 
Micropterygina 




INTRODUCTION. 



-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. 



The details of geographical distribution are given under the headings of the 
respective species, so far as I have been able to ascertain them ; but our knowledge 
in this direction is necessarily limited, and I have found much difficulty in obtaining 
reliable information, on account of the obstacles which exist in regard to the correct 
identification of species in other countries. 

The distribution of the species within New Zealand is also very imperfectly 
known at present, owing to the paucity of collectors and observers, particularly in 
the extreme north of New Zealand, and on the west coast of the South Island. 
In the latter locality no doubt many interesting species remain to lie discovered, 
especially amongst the mountain ranges. 



In employing the hook for identifications, the reader is recommended to first 
refer to the Plates and see if he can find anything at all resembling the species he 
has, and then to refer to the description for verification. In dealing with variable forms, 
it is always well to remember that the sluvpe of markings is generally far more constant 
than their intensity, or even their colour. 

The purely descriptive portions of the work have been made as brief as possible, 
and characters, of special importance for the identification of species, are printed in 
italics. Those who desire to consult more detailed descriptions may readily do so by 
referring to Mr. Meyrick's papers, in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 
and elsewhere. References to such papers are invariably given under the synonomy 
of each species which has been described by Mr. Meyrick. 

it should be mentioned that the figures and descriptions in this work have been 
prepared from nature, quite separately, and no attempt has been made to reconcile 
the figure with the description. This course has been followed so that any character, 
which may have been accidentally omitted from the figure, will not necessarily be 
wanting in the description. 

The figures of neuration (Plates I. and II.) have all been made from fully denuded 
specimens examined under the microscope. They are in nearly every instance 
considerably enlarged. Each drawing has afterwards been compared with Mr. Meyrick's 
description, and if found to differ, a second examination of the wings has been made 
with a view to a reconciliation of results. Any important differences observed between 
Mr. Meyrick's descriptions and my final results are in every case specially mentioned. 



NEW ZEALAND 

MACEO-LEPIDOPTEEA 



I. THE CARADRININA. 

The Caradrinina may be distinguished by the following characters : — 

" The maxillary palpi are obsolete, the fore-wings have vein lb simple or hardly furcate, lc absent, 
and 5 approximated to 4 towards base. The hind-wings are furnished with a frenulum, vein lc is 
absent, and 8 is connected or anastomosing with cell." (See Plate II., rigs. 1 to 12 and 14 to 18.) 

" Imago with the fore-wings more or less elongateTtriangular, termen not very oblique ; hind- 
wines broad-ovate. 

"Larva sometimes very hairy, usually with 10 prole^s, those on segments 7 and 8 sometimes 
absent. (Plate IIP, figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15 and 16.) Pupa with segments 9 to 11 free ; not protruded 
from cocoon in emergence." — (Meyrick.) 

So far as New Zealand is concerned, the Caradrinina may be said to comprise that 
group of the Lepidoptera formerly known as the Noctuina, with the addition of the family 
Arctiadce. Its members are chiefly nocturnal fliers ; the body is usually stout, the fore- 
wings are narrow, and (except in the Arctiadce) mostly dull-coloured, with three very 
characteristic spots. 1. The orbicular stigma, a round spot situated near the middle of 
the wing; '3. The claviform stigma usually somewhat club-shaped and situated imme- 
diately below the orbicular; and 3. The reniform stigma, a kidney-shaped marking 
situated beyond the orbicular. The claviform is very frequently absent, and the orbicular 
less frequently so, but the reniform is an almost constant character throughout the entire 
group, with the exception of the Arciiadcv. 

There are three families of the Caradrinina represented in New Zealand, viz. : — 
1. Akctiad.e. 2. Caradeinid.e. 3. Plusiad.e. 

Family 1.— ARCTIADCE. 

The Arctiadce may be characterised as follows : — 

" Eyes smooth. Tongue developed. Posterior tibiae with all spurs present. Hind-wings with 
veins (5 and 7 connate or stalked (rarely approximated or coincident), S anastomosing with cell nearly 
or quite from base to middle or beyond." — (Meyrick.) (See Plate IP, figs. 1, 2, and 4, 5.) 

This interesting family, although generally distributed throughout the world, is very 
poorly represented in New Zealand. Unlike most of the Caradrinina., many of the 
included species are day fliers and gaily coloured. One of these, Nyctemera annulata, is 
probably one of the most familiar of New Zealand insects, whilst the four remaining 
representatives of the family are but seldom seen. To British entomologists the name of 

1 



•2 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

" tiger moths " will probably at once recall several conspicuous and beautiful members of 
this family. 

Three genera of the Arctiadce are represented in New Zealand, viz. : — 
1. Nyctemeea. 2. Utetheisa. 3. Metackias. 

Genus 1.— NYCTEMEKA, Hb. 

" Tongue well developed. Antennae in $ bipectinated throughout. Palpi moderately long, 
porrected or rather ascending, with appressed scales ; terminal joint moderate, cylindrical. Fore- 
wings with vein 6 out of 9 or separate, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 connected with 9 by a bar. Hind-wings 
with veins 6 and 7 stalked or separate, 8 anastomosing shortly with margin of cell near base." 
(Plate II., fig. 3 head, 4 neuration of fore-wing, 5 ditto of hind-wing.) 

" The single New Zealand species is endemic, but nearly allied to an Australian form." — 
(Meyrick.) 

NYCTEMEEA ANNULATA, Boisd. 
{Leptosoma annulate, Boisd., Voy. Astr. v. 197, pi. v. 9 ; Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 281. Nyctemera 
doubkdayi, Walk., Bomb. 392. Nyctemera annidata, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1886, 760; ditto, 
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 218.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 1 <?, 2 ? ; Plate III., fig. 9, larva.) 
This species is perhaps one of the best known of the New Zealand Lepidoptera, 
occurring in great profusion in all parts of both North and South Islands. It is also 
common at Stewart Island, in the neighbourhood of cultivation. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. All the wings arc dee}) sooty black. The fore- 
wings have an irregular cream-coloured band running from beyond the middle of the casta towards the 
torn us. This band is interrupted in the middle, and crossed by several black veins, which sometimes 
almost break it up into a chain of spots. The hind-wings have a single large cream-coloured spot 
near the middle. The body is black, with several orange markings on the thorax, and a series of 
broad orange rings en the abdomen. 

This species varies a good deal in the extent of the cream-coloured markings. 
The larva feeds on the New Zealand groundsel (Senecio bellidioides), but in cultivated 
districts it is more often observed on Senecio scandens, a plant having a superficial resem- 
blance to ivy, which frequently grows in great profusion on fences and hedgerows in 
various parts of the country. 

Mr. W. W. Smith informs us * that it also feeds on the common groundsel 
(*S'. vulgaris) as well as on Cineraria maritima. I have often seen these caterpillars 
on mild days in the middle of winter, and full-grown specimens are very common towards 
the end of August, so that I think there is little doubt that the species passes the winter 
in the larval condition. At other seasons there is a continuous succession of broods. 

The length of the caterpillar when full grown is 1^ inches. It is covered with numerous tufts of 
long black hair, and is black in colour, with the dorsal and lateral lines dark-red. There are several 
large blue spots round the middle of each of the segments, and the membrane between each segment 
is bluish-grey. In younger larva> the bluish-grey colouring extends over a considerable portion of 
the insect. 

This caterpillar may be readily found, as it feeds on the upper surface of the leaves 
fully exposed to view. Its hairy armour evidently renders it unpalatable to birds, and 
li< nee the secret habits we observe in most larva' are absent in this species. 

When full-fed it selects a secluded spot, generally a crevice in the trunk of a tree, 
where it spins an oval cocoon of silk intermixed with its own hairs. Here it changes 

: Entniii. xxvi. 220. 



I.— THE CA BA DRININA . 3 

into a shining black pupa, speckled and striped with yellow. The insect remains in this 
state about six weeks. 

The moth first appeal's in September, and continues abundant until about the end of 
March. It is extremely common, especially during the latter end of summer, when 
specimens may often be seen flying in all directions. Mr. Meyrick observes" that this 
species has the curious habit of soaring in the early morning sunshine, soon after sunrise, 
in calm, hue weather. He states that he has seen them in numbers, flying round the 
tops of trees, at a height of over 100 feet. I can fully corroborate the accuracy of this 
interesting observation, and have noticed the insect to lie most active between the hours 
of rive and eight on fine mornings in midsummer. The habit is certainly a very unusual 
one, as most insects are rarely seen at that time of the day. 

This moth is confined to New Zealand, but two closely allied species, belonging to 
the same genus, are found in Australia. 

Genus 2.— ETETHEISA, Hb. 
" Head smooth. Ocelli large. Antennas in 3 ciliated, with longer seta? at joints. Palpi 
moderate, ascending, with loosely appressed scales. Thorax smooth beneath. Abdomen smooth- 
scaled. Tibiae smooth-scaled, spurs very short. Fore-wings with veins 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 
connected with 9. Hind-legs with veins 3, 1, ."> rather approximated, 6 or 7 connate or short-stalked, 
8 from middle of cell." 

"A small genus inhabiting the warmer regions of the world. Larva with rather 
scanty hairs, some finely branched.'" — (Meyrick".) 

Represented in New Zealand by a single species of wide distribution. 

UTETHEISA PULCHELLA, L. 
(Deiopeia pulchella, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 217.) 
(Plate IV., tig. 3.) 
This species was first observed in New Zealand in February, 1887, when I captured 
a single specimen in the Wainui-o-mata valley. Since that time Mr. A. Norris has seen 
two others near Petone, one of which is now in his collection. All the specimens at 
present noticed have consequently occurred in a very restricted portion of the Wellington 
District, though it is probable that the insect is far more generally distributed throughout 
the country than these records would seem to indicate. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1} inches. The fore wings are white, with five irregular 
transverse ruics of oblong crimson spots, alternating with six irregular rows of small black dots. The 
hind-wings are white, irregularly clouded with black on the termen; there are two small black spots 
near the middle. The body is white ; the head and thorax are spotted with crimson, and the antenna 1 
are black. 

The larva is thus described by Newman : — f 

" The ground colour is leaden with a covering of black hairs ; there is a broad white stripe down 
the back, and on each segment down the side is a double scarlet spot. On the continent of Europe 
this caterpillar is said to feed on the forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis)." 

In New Zealand the moth appears in February. Mr. Meyrick remarks]; : — "It is 
probably only an occasional immigrant. Although a feeble-looking insect, it possesses 
extraordinary capabilities of flight, and is sometimes met with far out at sea. It occurs 
throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands." It is well known to 

■ Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 213. \ -British Moths,' 31. % Trans. X. Z. Inst, xxii. '217. 



4 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

English entomologists as a great rarity, and many discussions have taken place at various 
times as to the propriety of retaining it on the list of British Lepidoptera. 

Genus 3.— METACEIAS, Meyr. 
"Tongue obsolete. Antennas in 3 moderately bipectinated throughout. Palpi rather short, hairy, 
concealed in rough hairs of head. Thorax and femora densely hairy beneath. Anterior tibiae with 
developed spine beneath, and apical hook. Fore-wings with vein 2 from §, 6 from point with or 
out of 9, 7 and 8 out of 9, 10 sometimes connected with 9 at a point above 7. Hind-wings with 
veins 3 and 4 almost from point, 6 and 7 from point or short-stalked, 8 from about I. Wings m 2 
rudimentary. (Plate II., fig. 1 neuration of fore-wing, fig. 2 ditto of hind- wing.) 

" An interesting and peculiar genus, apparently most allied to some Australian 
forms of Spilosoma, but quite distinct. Three species have been discovered, two of them 
quite recently, and it is not unreasonable to hope that additional forms may hereafter be 
found amongst the mountains, to which they seem especially attached." — (Meyrick). 

METACEIAS STRATEGICS, Hdsn. 
(Arctia strategica, Hdsn., Entom., 1889, 53. Metacrias strategtca, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 216.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 4.) 
This handsome species is at present only known by a single specimen, captured by 
Mr. W. W. Smith, near the summit of the Eichardson Kange, in South Canterbury, at an 
elevation of about 3,000 feet. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is H inches. The fore-wings are black, with two broad, 
dull yellow, longitudinal streaks ; between the costa and the first streak is a very fine yellowish line, and 
between the two streaks there are three similar lines. The hind-wings arc bright yellow, with a broad 
black band, parallel to the terincu, interrupted just be/ore the tornus; the vicinity of this black band 
is tinged with crimson. The body is black ; the top of the head, collar, and sides of the thorax and 
abdomen are dull yellow. The female is probably apterous. 

This species may be readily distinguished from the two following by the yellow collar, 
absence of any large spot in the centre of both fore-wings and hind-wings, and the red 
colouring of the termen of the hind- wings. The moth was taken in February, frequenting 
a species of Carmichcelia. It may be looked for in the mountainous regions of South 
Canterbury, but at present nothing further is known of its habits. 

METACEIAS EEICHEYSA, Meyr. 
{Metacrias erichrysa, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1886, 719; ditto, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 216.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 5.) 
This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick on Mount Arthur in the Nelson District 
in 1886. Since that time I have taken eleven specimens in the same locality, and have 
seen several others, but as yet I have not heard of its occurrence elsewhere. 

The expansion of the wings is lh inches. The fore-wings arc black, with orange-yellow markings. 
These consist of a fine line near the costa, becoming very broad near the base, several elongate 
markings between the veins near the middle, a series of spots near the termen, and a broad streak- 
parallel to the dorsum. The hind-wings are orange-yellow, with a curved black spot in the middle, 
and a broad black band on the termen, ending considerably before the tornus, and nearly broken a 
little before its termination. The female, according to Mr. Meyrick,* is "wholly whitish-ochreous ; 
wings minute, aborted ; legs short, stout, well developed." 

The Life-history is thus described by Mr. Meyrick | : "The larva is wholly black, 
clothed with long black hairs, those covering segmental incisions brownish-ochreous. It 
feeds on Senecio bellidioides. The pupa is enclosed in a slight cocoon." 

: Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 216. I [bid. 



I.— THE CARADRININA. 5 

The perfect insect occurs in January, frequenting sunny, grassy slopes on the 
mountain-sides, at about hood feet above the sea-level. It liies with great rapidity; 
hence it is generally very difficult to catch. 

METACEIAS HUTTONII, Bull. 
(Phaos huttonii, Butl., Cist Ent. 487 ; Metacrias huttonii, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Hoc. N. S. W., 18S6, 750; 
Trans. N. Z. lost. xxii. -JIG.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 6.) 
This interesting species was discovered at Lake Wakatipu, by Professor Huttou. 
The expansion of the wings of the male is 1| inches. The fore-wings are black ; there is an 
oblique crimson line near the base, two broad longitudinal cream-coloured lines above and below the 
middle, and a double transverse series of oblong cream-coloured spots near the termen. The hind- 
wings are pale ophreous, with a black crescent-shaped spot near the middle, and a broad black band 
almost touching the termen except a little before the tornus. The female is apterous. 
Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

Family 2.— CARADRINID^E. 

The GaradrinidcB are distinguished by the following characters : — 

" Ocelli usually present. Tongue usually well developed. Labial palpi moderate, more or less 
ascending, second joint densely sealed, usually rough, terminal rather short, obtuse. Thorax usually 
densely hairy beneath. Posterior tibiae with all spurs present. Fore-wings with veins 7 and 8 
out of 9, 10 connected with 9. Hind-wings with veins 3 and 4 connate or short-stalked, 5 obsolete 
or imperfect, parallel to 4, 6 and 7 connate or short-stalked or seldom closely approximated only, 
8 shortly anastomosing with cell near base, thence evenly diverging." (Plate II., figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.) 

" A dominant family in temperate regions, especially in the northern hemisphere, 
the species being very numerous and often occurring in great plenty ; within the tropics, 
however, their place is largely taken by the Phcsiadtz. The structure is in most 
particulars remarkably uniform, the neuration and palpi being practically identical 
throughout the family. The markings are usually very similar, and the colouring dull 
and adapted to conceal insects which are accustomed to hide amongst dead leaves or 
refuse; hence this family is not one of the easiest or most attractive to study. The 
species are the most truly nocturnal of all the Lepidoptera ; few are readily obtainable 
by day, but at night they are found in abundance at flowers or sugar. Imago with 
fore- wings usually elongate, body relatively stout, and densely scaled. It may be noted 
as an established conclusion that antennal pectinations, if not extending to the apex of 
the antenna?, are in this family seldom sufficient to mark generic distinction. 

" Ovum spherical, more or less distinctly ribbed, and reticulated. Larva usually 
with few hairs, often nocturnal, sometimes subterranean ; often very polyphagous. 
Pupa usually subterranean." — (Meyrick.) 

The family is represented in New Zealand by the following twelve genera : — 

| 1. MlSELIA. 

Sub-family 1. — Poliades j 2. Okthosia. 

( 3. Xanthia. 

, 4. Physetica. 

5. Leucania. 

Sub-family 2. — Melanchkides < 6. Ichneutica. 

7. Melaxchea. 

I 8. Eeana. 



NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 



Sub-family 3. — Caradbinides 



9. Bityla. 

10. Agkotis. 

11. Heliothis. 

12. cosmodes. 



Sub-family l.—POLIADEB. 

"Eyes naked, ciliated (i.e., furnished with a marginal row of long cilia curving over them)." — 
(Meyriek.) 

Genus 1.— MISELIA, Steph. 

" Antennae in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with anterior angles projecting, 
somewhat crested. Abdomen not crested." — (Meyriek.) 

We have at present but one New Zealand species. 

MISELIA PESSOTA, Meyr. 
(Miselia pessota, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 29.) 
(Plate V., fig. 26.) 
This little species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at Lake 
Coleridge and Eakaia in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull purplish-brown ; there is an 
oblong black mark at the base of the dorsum containing a slender curved' white line; the orbicular 
is rather small, round, margined first with dull white and then with black ; the reniform is large, 
oblong, dull white, margined with pale ochreous towards the base of the wing ; there is a 
conspicuous oblong black mark between the orbicular and reniform stigmata. The hind-wings are dull 
grey, with the cilia paler. 

The perfect insect appears in January. One specimen was taken at sugar in the 
Wellington Botanical Gardens, and two specimens are recorded from Canterbury. It is 
evidently a scarce species. 

Genus '2.— OIITHOSIA, Ochs. 

"Head rough-scaled; eyes naked, ciliated. Antennae in male ciliated. Thorax with or without 
anterior crest. Abdomen not crested. 

"A considerable genus of nearly universal distribution, though mainly found in 
temperate regions of both hemispheres. The imagos are almost all autumnal, and their 
yellow and ferruginous colouring is doubtless adapted to the autumn tints of falling 
leaves." — (Meyriek.) 

Represented in New Zealand by three species. 

OETHOSIA MAUGAKITA, Hawth. 
(Orthosia margarita, Hawth., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxix. '283.) 
(Plate V., fig. 31.) 
This species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. E. F. Hawthorne. 
The expansion of the wings is about I/) inches. The fore-wings are dark brownish-black and 
rather glossy; there are several obscure dark marks near the base; the orbicular is oval, oblique, 
brownish-yellow, slightly darker in the middle ; the claviform is almost obsolete ; the reniform is rather 
large, bordered with dull white towards the base and termen ; beyond the reniform there is a very 
distinct wavy transverse line ; another line is situated near the termen emitting several black wedge- 
shaped markings from its inner edge. The hind- wings are shining white and iridescent, with the 
veins black and the casta and termen narrowly shaded with black. 

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Hawthorne's collection. 



I.— THE CARADRINTNA. 7 

ORTHOSIA COMMA, Walk. 

(Manicstra comma, Walk., Noct. 239 ; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pi. ix., 6. G-raphiphora implexa, Walk., 
Noct. 405. Hadcna phisiata, ih., Suppl. 742; Nitocris bicomma, Gn., Ent. Mon. Mag. v., 4. Orthosia 
comma, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 30.) 

(Plate V., lis. 27 <? , 28 2 ; Plate III., fig. 11, larva.) 

This is apparently a common and generally distributed species. It has occurred 
plentifully at Wellington, Blenheim, Christchurch, and Rakaia. 

The expansion of the wings is about \\ inches. The fore-wings are dark grey crossed by four 
wavy, black-margined, transverse lines ; beyond the outermost of these lines there is a black band 
running parallel with the termen, and beyond this again a broader band of the ground colour; the 
orbicular spot is very minute and dull white ; the reniform, which is surrounded by a black shading, 
is large, yellow towards the costa, and white towards the termen. The hind-wings are dark grey. 
The females are generally much darker than the males, some specimens having the fore-wings very 
dark brownish-black. 

Both sexes vary a good deal in the depth of colouring, but the markings appear to 
be quite constant. 

The larva is dark brown, tinged with pink; the subdorsal region is paler, there are a series 
of diagonal blackish stripes on each segment, and the anterior portions of the larva are much darker 
than the rest of the body. 

The specimens I reared were fed on lettuce, but I expect that the caterpillar feeds 
on low plants generally. It is full grown about January. The pupa state is spent in the 
earth. 

The moth appears in January, February, and March. It is very common at the 
flowers of the white rata, and may also be attracted by sugar and by light. 

OPTHOSIA IMMUNIS, Walk. 

(Taniocampa immunis, Walk., Noct. 430. Cerastis innocua, ib. 1710 (locality probably erroneous). Agrotis 

acetina, Feld., Eeis. Nov. pi. cix. 6. Orthosia immunis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 30.) 

(Plate V., fig. 29.) 

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at Blenheim in 
the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings vary from bright orange-brown to dull 
reddish-brown; there is an obscure black dot near the base, a faint transverse line at about one-fourth ; 
the orbicular is oval, faintly outlined in brown ; the claviform is very faint, its position indicated by a 
small brown dot ; the reniform is large, oblong, much indented towards the termen, doubly outlined 
with dull yellow and containing a blackish spot towards its lower edge, its posterior margin is shaded 
with dark brown ; there are several faint, wavy, transverse lines near the termen, and the termen 
itself is shaded with brownish-black; the cilia are reddish-brown. The hind-wings are dull grey; 
the cilia are pale reddish-ochreous tipped with white. The head is covered with scattered white scales, 
the thorax is reddish-brown, and the abdomen is grey tipped with reddish-brown; the upper joints 
of the tarsi of the anterior legs are white. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. It frequents the 
blossoms of the white rata, where it occasionally may be taken in the daytime, but more 
frequently at night. It is not, however, a common species. 

Genus 3.— XANTHIA, Tr. 

"Antenna; in male filiform, moderately ciliated. Thorax with sharp compressed anterior and 
small posterior crest. Abdomen not crested." — (Meyrick.) 
Only one New Zealand species is known at present. 



8 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

XANTHIA PUEPUEEA, Butl. 

(Graphiphora purpurea, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. XautJiia ceramodes, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 31. 

X. purpurea, ib. xx. 46.) 

(Plate V., fig. 32.) 

This handsome species has been found at Wellington in the North Island, and at 

Dunedin in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 11 inches. The fore-wings are rich, glossy reddish-brown with 
several scattered whitish scales; there is a distinct yellow mark on the costa at about one-fourth, 
forming the beginning of a broken transverse line ; the orbicular is small, round, and yellowish ; the 
reniform is small, crescentic and yellowish, the space between the orbicular and flic reniform is very 
dark blackish-brown; beyond the reniform there is a conspicuous white mark on the costa forming the 
beginning of a second broken transverse line ; a third shaded line is situated near the termen. The 
hind-wings are pale brown with a dark spot in the middle, very conspicuous on the under surface. 

The perfect insect appears from September till April. It is usually taken at sugar 
or light, but is not a very common species. 

Sub-family 2.— MELANCHRIDES. 

Eyes hairy. 

Genus 4.— PHYSETICA, Meyr. 
"Palpi with terminal joint in male greatly swollen, as broad as second, rather short, rounded, 
with an orifice in outer side, in female normal. Antenna' in male filiform, simple. Thorax and 
abdomen smooth."— (Meyrick.) (Plate IE, fig. 8.) 

PHYSETICA C.EEULEA, Gn. 
(Agrotis carulea, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 38. Physetica carulea, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 5.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 7.) 
This fine species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at Blenheim 
and Kakaia in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are slaty-blue; there is an obscure, 
wavy, whitish transverse line near the base, two very wavy blackish lines at about one-third, a dark 
transverse shaded line across the middle, containing the orbicular spot, then a very wavy line followed 
by a darker space and a wavy, dull, whitish terminal line. Hind-wings dark grey, paler near the hase, 
cilia shining white. 

The perfect insect appears in October, December, and January. Mr. Fereday states 
that it was formerly very common at blossoms. 

Genus 5.— LEUCANIA, Ochs. 

"Head rough-scaled; eyes hairy. Antenna' in male ciliated. Thorax with or without slight 
anterior crest. Abdomen not crested. 

" A very large cosmopolitan genus, equally common everywhere ; it is a development 
of Melanchra, to which some of the New Zealand species give such a complete transition 
that a line of demarcation can hardly be drawn. The larvae all feed on Graminece"— 
(Meyrick.) 

We have seventeen species. 



I.— THE CABADB1NINA. 9 

LEUCANIA GKISEIPENNIS, Feld. 
(Mamestra griseipcnnis, Feld., pi. cix. 22. Chcra virescens, Butl., Cist. Bnt. ii. 489. Spalotis inconstans, 
ib. 545; Leucania moderata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 7 (nee Walk.). Leucania griseipennis, Meyr., 
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 14.) 

(Plate TV., fig. 8.) 

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island. In the South Island 
it has been taken at Mount Arthur, Luke Coleridge, Rakaia, Akaroa, and Lake Guy on. 

The expansion of the wings is II, inches. The fore-wings are dull greenish-grey; there are two 
obscure blackish transverse lines near the base and several dull white dots ; a very conspicuous 
transverse curved black shade near the middle, followed by an extremely jagged dull white transverse 
line, another less jagged transverse line near the termen ; the orbicular is oval, pale, edged with black; 
the reniform and claviform are also pale but inconspicuous; the cilia are tinged with brown. The 
hind-wings are grey with the cilia wholly white. 

The following variety, taken on Mount Arthur, is thus described by Mr. Meyrick : — 

" Var. A. Thorax and fore-wings without ochreous tinge, with numerous white -.-ales tending 
to form suffused spots and margins to lines; cilia distinctly barred with darker; hind-wings grey, 
with dark grey, irregular terminal hand." ; 

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and is said to be very common 
in certain localities. It has been taken at considerable elevations in the Nelson province 
( 1,7(K) feet above the sea-level on Mount Arthur, by Mr. Meyrick and myself). In 
Wellington it is certainly a scarce species. 

LEUCANIA MODERATA, Walk. 

(Agrotis moderata, Walk., Suppl. 705. Eumichtis sistens, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 39. Mainestra sistens, 

Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 19. Leucania mode rata, ib. xx. 45.) 

This species has occurred at Rakaia in the South Island. It very closely resembles 

the preceding species, from which it is said to be distinguished by the cilia of 

the hind-wings, which are "partially grey in Leucania moderata, wholly white in 

L. grisei'pennis.'" — (Meyrick.) 

The perfect insect appears in February. I am unacquainted with this species. 

LEUCANIA TEMPEEATA, Walk. 
(Bryophila temperata, Walk., 1G48 (nee Meyrick). Xylina inceptura, ib. 173G. A', deceptura, ib. 17:37. 
Leucania temperata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 45.) 
"Terminal joint of palpi moderate; form of wing as in Leucania grisei'pennis, first and second 
lines whitish, inconspicuous, margined with black dots, second line evenly curved, subterminal per- 
ceptible; cilia grey, indistinctly barred with white. Hind-wings grey." — (Meyrick.) 
Described by Mi'. Meyrick from the British Museum specimens. 
I am unacquainted with this species. 

LEUCANIA NULLIFEPA. Walk. 
(Agrotis mdlifera, Walk., Noct. 742; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pi. ix. 5. Alysia specifica, Gn., Bnt. Mo. Mag. v. 3. 
Leucania mdlifera, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 7.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 9; head. Plate IE, fig. 11.) 
This large though sombre-looking insect has occurred in the North Island at 
Taupo and Wellington. In the South island it has been taken commonly at Mount 
Arthur, Christchurch, and Rakaia. 

The expansion of the wings is from 21 to •_>;; inches. The fore-wings an- uniform dull grey, 
with a double row of very faint white spots parallel to the termen ; the hind-wings, head, thorax, 

and abdomen are pale grey. 

' Trans. X. Z. Inst. xix. 7. 

2 



10 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

In some specimens the fore-wings are quite destitute of markings, whilst in others 
the ground colouring varies considerably, and is occasionally dull brown instead of 

gray- 

The larva is very stout, bright yellowish-brown, considerably paler on the under surface ; 
the dorsal line is faintly indicated, the subdorsal and lateral lines are dull brown, with a chain 
of elongate white spots beneath each ; the spiracles and dorsal surface of the posterior segments 
are black ; there are also numerous white dots all over the larva. 

This caterpillar feeds on spear-grass {Aciphylla squarrosa), and only a single 
individual inhabits each clump. It devours the soft, central portions of the tussock, 
and its presence can generally be detected by a quantity of pale brown " frass," or 
discoloration, which is generally visible near the bases of the leaves. Owing to the 
formidable array of spines presented by the spear-grass, this larva can have but few 
enemies. The presence of these spines makes the insect a difficult one to obtain 
without special apparatus. A sharp pair of strong scissors, however, will enable the 
collector to cut off a sufficient number of the "spears" to allow of the insertion of 
a small trowel or hatchet under the root. The plant can then be lifted out of the 
ground, and the larva afterwards carefully extracted from its burrow in the stem. 
These larvae are full grown about the end of May, which is consequently the best time 
to obtain them for rearing. The pupa is enclosed in an earthen cell amongst the 
roots of the spear-grass. The moth appears in November, December, January, 
February, and March. It is sometimes attracted by light. I have found it 
commonly on the Tableland of Mount Arthur at elevations of from 3,500 to 4,000 
feet above the sea-level, where its food-plant also flourishes. 

LEUCANIA PUEDII, Frdy. 
(Leucania purdii, Frdy., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xv. 195 ; Meyr., ib. xix. 8.) 
' (Plate IV., fig. 11.) 
This fine species was discovered at Dunedin by Mr. Purclie. A single specimen 
has also been taken at Wellington. 

The expansion of the wings is from 2} to '1\ inches. The fore-icing* are brownish-crimson ; 
there arc two broad, shaded, yellow, longitudinal streak.': above and below the middle; the costa 
is margined with yellow near the base, and the dorsum is yellow throughout its entire length ; 
the cilia are deep orange. The hind-wings are dark grey, and the cilia yellow. 
The perfect insect appears in December. 

Described and figured from specimens in the collections of Messrs. Feredav and 
Hawthorne. 

LEUCANIA ATRISTRIGA, Walk. 
{Xylina atristriga, Walk., Suppl. 756. Mamestra antipoda, Feld., Beis. Nov., pi. cix. 23. Leucania 
atristriga, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 8.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 12.) 
This smart-looking species is very common in the North Island in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wellington, in the South Island it has occurred abundantly at Nelson, 
Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, and Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is about U inches. The fore-wings are rich reddish-brown ; 
there is a broad bluish-grey longitudinal streak on the casta, reaching nearly to the apex, and 
a very broad, pale brown, longitudinal shading on the dorsum ; then 1 is a conspicuous longitudinal 
black strip: in the middle of tin wing from the base to one-third, the orbicular, reniform, and claviform 
spots are bluish-grey, edged with black, the transverse lines are very indistinct ; the cilia are 
reddish-brown. The hind-wings are dark grey with the cilia ochreous. 



I.— THE GABADBININA. 11 

This species varies slightly in the intensity of its markings and in the extent of the pale 
dorsal area. 

The moth first appears about January and continues in .great abundance until 
the middle or end of April, being one of the last of our Leucanias to disappear in 
the autumn. It is extremely partial to the flowers of the white rata (Metrosideros 
scandens), where, on warm, still evenings, it may be often met with in the utmost 
profusion. It also comes freely to sugar, and is frequently attracted by light. 

LEUCANIA PROPRIA, Walk. 

(Leucania propria, Walk., Noct. iii. ; Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 2; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pi. ix. 4; Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 9.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 13.) 

This insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Blenheim, and 

Mount Hutt. 

The expansion of the wings is I 1 inches. The fore-wings are pale ochreous ; there is a con- 
spicuous longitudinal black streak in the middle of the wing, extending from the base to about 
one-third, and a brand, dark brown longitudinal shading, slightly above the middle, from one-fourth 
to the tennen ; the renifonn is rather small, dull grey, faintly edged with darker, the orbicular 
and claviform are very indistinct or absent ; there is a transverse series of black dots on the veins 
a little before the tennen, and another series on the termen ; the cilia are ochreous banded with 
brown. The hind-wings are pale grey, with a terminal series of small black marks; the cilia are 
ochreous. The head and thorax are pale reddish-brown, and the abdomen is ochreous. 
This species varies slightly in the depth of its colouring. 

The perfect insect is met with from January till March. On the Mount Arthur 
Tableland it occurred very commonly at about 3,800 feet above the sea-level. In this 
locality it was freely attracted by light, and large numbers of specimens were captured 
by the aid of a single candle, exhibited at the tent door during mild evenings. 

LEUCANIA ACONTISTI8, Meyr. 
(Leucania acontistis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 9.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 14.) 
A single specimen of this species was captured at Castle Hill by Mr. J. D. 
Enys, and is now in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are dull ochreous; the veins are 
slightly darker; there is a fine, black, doublij-curved, longitudinal streak /nan the base to about 
one-third. The hind-wings are pale yellowish-grey. The cilia of all the wings are dull ochreous. 
Described and figured from the specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

LEUCANIA PHAULA, Meyr. 
(Leucania phaula, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10.) 
(Plate IV., tig. 15.) 
Two specimens of this insect, " bred from tussock grass," were found at 
Christchurch.'"' 

The expansion of the wings is U inches. The fore-wings are dull ochreous, with the veins 
obscurely indicated by black and white dots; there is a curve. 1 series of minute black dots near 
the termen. The hind-wings are pale ochreous, clouded with grey towards the termen. The 
cilia of all the wings are dull ochreous. This insect may be distinguished from Leucania unica 
by its larger size, duller coloration, less oblique termen of fore-wings, and simple antenna? in 
the male. 

The perfect insect appears in November. 

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

* Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10. 



12 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

LEUCANIA ALOPA, Meyr. 
(Leucania alopa, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 10.) 
This species has occurred at Lake Coleridge and at Lake Guyon. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1J inches. The fore-wings are dull orange-brown ; there 
are three obscure black dots at about one-third ; the reniform is represented by a rather conspicuous 
cloudy spot ; there is a curved series of black dots near the termen. The hind-wings are grey, paler 
towards the base. The cilia of all the wings are dull orange-brown. 
The moth appears in March. 
Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

LEUCANIA MICEASTKA, Meyr. 
(Leucania micrastra, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 383.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 10.) 
Three specimens of this insect have occurred in my garden at Karori. 
The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are bright orange-brown; there are 
several white scales near the base, two black-edged white dots at about one-third, a small black spot 
with a shining white dot on each side of it at the origin of veins :j and 4, and a series of black and 
white dots on all the veins near the termen; the cilia are orange-brown tipped with white. The 
hind-wings are pale ochreous-brown. The cilia are ochreous broadly tipped with white. 

This species somewhat resembles Leucania alopa in general appearance, but the 
wings are narrower and the colour of the fore-wings is considerably brighter. 
The moth appears in December. 

LEUCANIA UNICA, Walk. 

(Leucania iiuiea, Walk., Noct. 112; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pi. ix. 9. Nonagria juncicolor, (in., Ent. Mo. 

Mag. v. '2. Leucania uuica, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 10.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 17.) 

This insect has been taken at Blenheim and at Eakaia. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are dull ochreous with the veins 
darker; there are one or two obscure blackish dots at about one-third from the. base, and several 
faint dots near the termen. Hind-wings paler with very pale cilia; the antennae in the male ace 
moderately bipectinated. 

The moth appears in November. 

Described and figured from Mr. Fereday's specimens. 

LEUCANIA AEOTIS, Meyr. 
{Leucania arotis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 11. Leucania aulacias,* Meyr., Trans. N.Z.Inst, xix. 11.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 18.) 

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island. In the South Island 
it has been found at Blenheim, Christchurch, and Rakaia. 

'The expansion of the wings is about 1\ inches. The fore-wings are cream-colour with the reins 
finely marked in grey ; there is a series of streaks of darker cream-colour between the veins, and a row 
of minute black dots near the termen ; the cilia are cream-colour. The hind-wings are dark grey 
with the cilia white. 

The perfect insect appears in November and December. It is rather a scarce 
species. 

* Leucania aulacias, Meyr., is distinguished bj having grej cilia to the bind-wings. The species was described from 

Le pecimen taken .a Dunedin and now in Mr. Fereday's collection. I have carefully examined this specimen, and 

liml that the; cilia, although considerably injured, are distinctly grey. A., however, [ think it undesirable to characterize 
pecii bo closely resembling each other from such meagre material, 1 here regard it us u synonym of Leucania arotis. 



I.— THE CABADBININA. 13 

LEUCANIA KULCANA, Fereday. 

(L wania mlcana, Folv., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xii. 267, pi. ix. ; Meyr., Trans. X. Z. Inst. xix. 11.) 
(I 'hit, IV., fig. 19 J, 20 ?.) 

This species has occurred at Akaroa and at Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is from JA to L ; inches. The fore-wings are light ochreous with 
tin- veins white; there is a shaded, brownish, longitudinal streak near the apex, another from the 
.aid of the cell to the terinen, a stronger streak from the base of the wing to near the tornus, ami 
another along the dorsum; there is a minute black dot near the base above the middle, a slightly 
larger dot at about one-third, a conspicuous dot between the origins of veins ;-> and 4, and a very 
minute dot on vein 6. Hind-wings dark blackish-grey, cilia paler. 

The perfect insect appears in February, and lias been taken at sugar. 

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

LEUCAN1A SEMIVITTATA, Walk. 
(Leucania semkittata, Walk.. Suppl. 628; Meyr., Trans. X. Z. Inst, xix. 12.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 21 A . 22 2.) 

This species litis occurred commonly at Christchurch, Mount Torlesse, ami Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is from 1£ to If inches. The fore-wings are pale ochreous; there 
is a very obscure, shaded, brownish, longitudinal streak below the middle, a compicuous black dot 
at the base, a second at about one-sixth, a third at one-third, a fourth between the origins of veins 
• > ami 4, a curved series of minute terminal dots. Hind-wings much paler with a darker blotch near 
the middle. In the female the wines are browner with the dots much smaller or absent. 

The moth appears in April ami May, being found at night on the blossoms of 
the scabious. 

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

LEUCANIA BLENHEIMENSIS, Frdy. 
(Leucania blenheivtensis, Frdy., Trans. X. Z. Inst. xv. 196; Meyr., ib. xix. 12.) 
t Plate IV., fig. 23 2.) 
This rather striking insect has occurred at Napier and at Blenheim. 
The expansion of the wings is about 1.1 inches. The fore-wings an cream-coloured with the 
veins darker ; there are three faint black dots at about one-third, a curved series of black dots near 
the termen, the termen itself being strongly shaded with dark greyish-brown; the cilia are dark greyish- 
brown. The hind-wines are grey, paler towards the base ; the cilia are also grey. 
Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

LEUCANIA UNIPUNCTA, Haw. 

(Leucania wiipioncta, Haw., Lepidoptera Britannica, p. 174, No. 37. Leucania extranea, (in., Noct. v. 77; 

Butl, Voy. Ereb., pi. ix. 2; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 12.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 24) 

This species litis occurred tit Napier and at Wellington in the North Island. In 
the South Island it has been found at Nelson and tit Christchurch. 

The expansion of the wings is 1; inches. The fore-wings vary from dull ochreous to bright 
reddish-ochreous ; there are numerous indistinct blackish dots ; the orbicular and reniform an- almost 
round and slightly paler than the rest of the wing; there is a minute white dot immediately beloic 
the reniform and an obscure, oblique blackish hue from the apex of the wing ending m a series of 
minute black dots ; the termen is not indented. The hind-wings are grey, darker near the termen; 
the cilia are white. 

Varies considerably in the ground colour and in the extent of the black speckling. 

•'The larva is extremely variable. Its usual colour is pale brown with a white dorsal line aud 
several dark lines on each side. 



14 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPTDOPTEBA. 

"Young larvae closely resemble their food-plant in colour, and occasionally this is 
persistent throughout life ; in fact the larva is very variable. Feeds on various 
grasses." 

The perfect insect first appears about January, and continues in increasing numbers 
until the middle or end of April. It is often met with at sugar. 

This species is of almost universal distribution, having occurred in Australia, Java, 
India, Europe, and North and South America. In England it is regarded as a great 
rarity. 

Genus 6.— ICHNEUTKA, Meyr. 
"Antenna? in male strongly bipectinated throughout. Thorax and abdomen smooth." — (Meyrick.) 

This genus is very closely allied to Leucania. It appears to be exclusively limited 
to New Zealand, where it is represented by two conspicuous species. Probably when 
the extensive mountainous regions of the country have been more fully explored by 
entomologists other species will be discovered. 

ICHNEUTICA DIONE, n. sp. 
(Plate IV., fig. 27 $ .) 

A single specimen of this interesting species was captured by Mr. C. W. Palmer, 
on Mount Arthur at an elevation of about 4,400 feet. 

The expansion of the wings is \\ inches. The fore-wings are dull blackish-brown, darker near 
the middle ; their is a rather oblique, white, longitudinal stripe below the middle from about one-eighth 
to one-third; above this there is a very conspicuous, large, elongate white marie; this mark has a 
semicircular indentation above, probably representing the orbicular ; another indentation towards the 
termen, probably representing the reniform, and below this it emits tiro short teeth-tike projections; 
beyond these markings the ground colour becomes paler, and is traversed by an obscure, jagged, 
transverse line ; the cilia are grey. The hind-wings are pale grey ; the cilia are also grey. The 
body is dark brownish-black. The pectinations of the antenna? of this insect are slightly shorter 
than those in Ichneutica ceraunias. 

The type specimen is slightly damaged ; but the species is so evidently distinct that 
I feel no hesitation in describing it. 

ICHNEUTICA CERAUNIAS, Meyr. 
(Ichneutica ceraunias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 13.) 
(Plate IV., fig. '25 $ , 2(3 ? ). 
This handsome species has hitherto only occurred on the Tableland of Mount 
Arthur, where, however, it seems to be common. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is If inches, of the female 2 inches. The fore-wings of 
the male are rich orange-brown, paler towards the base. There are two very broad, longitudinal, 
yellowish stripes, one on the costa and the other on the dorsum. The costal stripe divides into two 
branches before its termination, one of which is produced downwards; there is also a conspicuous 
white mark a little beyond the middle of the wing emitting tiro tooth-like projections towards the termen, 
and two narrow, dark brown streaks near the base of the wing. The hind-wings are dark brownish- 
grey. The head, thorax, and abdomen are yellowish-brown, and the antenna' are very strongly 
bipectinated. The female is much narrower in the wings, the ground colouring is dull brown, and the 
markings are all dull yellow. 

This species varies slightly in the intensity of the markings. 

The moth appears early in January. It is much attracted by light. In 1893 1 
took over twenty specimens by means of a single candle exhibited, during three evenings, 
: Report .if American Department of Agriculture, 1881, \>. 93. 



I. —THE GABADBININA. 15 

at the door of my tent. Prior to this date only one specimen had been taken by Mr. 
Meyrick during January, L886. All these ninths were met with over 3,500 feet above 
the sea-level, so that the insect is evidently confined to mountain regions. 

Genus 7.— MFLAXCHPA, Hb. 

"Head rough-scaled; eyes hairy. Ajitennse in ,i ciliated, or sometimes bipectinated with apex 

simple. Thorax with mor ■ less developed anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen more or less 

crested, in 2 obtuse. Anterior tibiae rarely with apical hook." 

"A large genus of very general distribution, but much commoner in temperate 
regions of both hemispheres. Relatively much more numerous in New Zealand than 
elsewhere." — (Meyrick.) 

This genus includes no less than thirty-lour species. Some of these are extremely 
difficult to distinguish owing to the obscurity of their markings, which offer unusual 
obstacles to clear description and delineation. I have, however, endeavoured to point 
out what, in my opinion, constitute the most reliable distinctions; but I fear that 
amongst those species, where only one or two specimens are known, cases of real 
difficulty will arise. Future investigation will no doubt result in a remodelling of 
some of the more obscure species in this genus. 

It may be well to point out that the genus Melanchra was formerly known by 
the name of Mamestra. 

MELANCHEA DISJUNGENS, Walk. 
(HeliopJwbiis clisjungens, Walk., Noct. 1681 ; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pi. ix. 1. Hadena nervata, Gn., Ent. Mo. 
Mag. v. 40. Mamestra disjungens, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 15.) 
(Plate V.,' fig. 43.) 
This species has occurred in the South Island at Ashburton and at Rakaia. 
The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are brownish-grey; the reins 
are very conspicuously marked in white, the orbicular and reniform are large, white, each with a dusky 
centre; there is a conspicuous, white, transverse line near the termen, emitting two white, tooth-like 
projections on veins :•; and 4, and connected with a longitudinal line running to the base of the wing. 
The hind-wings are grey with the cilia white. 

The perfect insect appears from November till January. It was formerly a common 
species near Eakaia, hut is now" much scarcer. 

MELANCHRA PAEACAUSTA, Meyr. 
(Mamestra paracausta, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 15.) 
(Plate IV., tig. -is j, 28a 2.) 
This species has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, and 
Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is about l'i inches. The fore-wings are dull white with an irregular, 
central, longitudinal, blackish-brown streak becoming very broad towards the termen; tliere is an oval 
reddish-brown blotch near the base, bat no distinct transverse liars ,■ two conspicuous elliptic, white 
marks are situated on tin- termen near the tornus. The hind-wings are pale grey, with an obscure 
central shade and a series of brownish dots along the termen. 

The species appears somewhat variable. In some male specimens the white colouring- 
is largely replaced by pale yellowish-brown. Described and figured from specimens 
in the collections of Messrs. Fereday, Hawthorne, and Philpott * 

* Mr. Philpott informs me that the larva .if .1/. paracausta closely resembles! that of M. vitiosa. 



16 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

MELANCHEA INSIGNIS, Walk. 
(Euplexia insignis, Walk., Suppl. 724. Xylina turUda, ib. 754. Mamestra polychroa, Meyr., Trans. 
N. Z. Inst. xix. 16. Mamestra insignis, Meyr., ib. xx. 45.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 29 S , 30 5 .) 
This pretty species has occurred at Palmerston and Wellington in the North Island, 
and at Blenheim, Christchurch, and West Plains near Invercargill in the South Island. 
It is probably common and generally distributed. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are pinkish-brown ; there is a 
short black streak near the centre of the wing at the base, and an irregular, extensive black marking 
along the dorsum; the orbicular, reniform, and claviform spots are large, margined first with green 
and then with black; a fine white line is situated parallel with the termen, edged with green, and 
emitting two sharp tooth-like markings ; beyond this line the ground colour of the wing is dark- 
brownish-black. The hind-wings are dull brown, darker towards termen; the cilia are white with 
a brown line. The antennae of the male are slightly bipectinated. In the female the ground colour is 
considerably paler, the black markings much darker, and more suffused, and the posterior half of the 
reniform is usually creamy-white. 

Some specimens have the green and black markings slightly more pronounced, 
but otherwise there are no important variations. 

The eggs are deposited in October and November. When first laid they are pale 
greenish-white, but become dark brown in the centre as the enclosed embryo develops. 
The young larvae emerge in about a fortnight. At this time the two anterior pairs of 
prologs are very short, causing the caterpillar to loop up its back when walking. In 
colour the young larva is pale brown, with numerous black warts emitting several long, 
stiff bristles. It is very active, and busily devours the soft green portions of the dock 
leaves, leaving the harder membrane untouched. Twelve days later the larva becomes 
pale green in colour, and moults for the first time, after which traces of subdorsal 
and lateral lines present themselves. Growth then proceeds with great rapidity, and 
in another eleven days the larva again sheds its skin. The last moult occurs a fort- 
night later. 

At this time the larva is pale greenish-brown, inclining to yellow on the ventral surface. The 
lateral lines consist of a series of black markings near the posterior margin of each segment ; the 
subdorsal lines are represented by four oblique black marks on each side of the four posterior 
segments of the larva. The region between these lines is much clouded with yellowish-green or 
pink, the larvae having a tendency to diverge into pink and green varieties. The anal segment is 
dull yellow. The head is brown, with two black stripes and several black dots. 

Whilst rearing these larva' I noticed that during the daytime they invariably hid 
themselves under the blotting paper at the bottom of the breeding cage. Mo doubt, 
under natural conditions, they retreat beneath the ground, only coming abroad at night 
to feed. This habit would account for the difficulty experienced in finding larvae of 
this genus in a state of nature. 

The pupa state is spent in the earth, and occupies about it month. 

The moth appears towards the end of January. It evidently hibernates through 
the winter, as it is often seen very late in the autumn, and is always one of the first 
moths to come to sugar in the early spring. It is frequently observed at rest, on fences 
and trees in the daytime. 



I.— THE CABADBININA. 17 

MELANCHEA MAYA, n. sp. 
(Plate IV.. fig. 31. 

A single specimen of this species was taken on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, 
at an altitude of about 3,500 feet. 

The expansion of the wings is 1| inches. The fore-wings are bright yellowish-brown, paler 
towards the apex ; there are two broad, shaded, black stripes at the base, one near the middle edged 
with yellow above, and one below the middle edged with yellow beneath; the orbicular is oval, oblique, 
edged witb black except towards the costa : the claviform is rather irregular, dark purplish-brown : the 
reniform is very large, dark purplish-brown edged with black ; there is a large elongate patch of very 
dark browti at the tomus, partly edged first with yellow and thru with black; another smaller patch 
is situated on the termen near the middle, bisected by a tine yellow line. The hind-wings are grey; 
the cilia of all the wings are yellowish-brown. The head and thorax are purplish-brown, the abdomen 
dull hrownish-grey. 

MELANCHEA PLENA, Walk. 

{Erana plena, Walk., Suppl. 711. Mamcstra sphugnea, Feld., Reis. Nov., pi. cix. 17. Dianthcecia viridis, 

Bui, Cist. Ent. ii. 547. Mamcstra plena, Meyr., Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. 17.) 

(Plate IV.. fig 32.) 

Apparently common in the Canterbury district, where it has been taken at Christ- 
church and Mount Hutt. In the North Island it has occurred in the neighbourhood of 
Wellington. 

It resembles Melanchra insignis in every respect except that the head, thorax, and fore-wings are 
entirely suffused with green ; there is no central black streak at the- base, and the orbicular, reniform, 
and claviform spots are smaller. 

It varies a little in the intensity of the green colouring. 

The eggs are deposited early in November. At first they arc white in colour, but 
soon become dull brown, with two concentric circular markings. The young larva closely 
resembles that of the Melanchra insignis, but is much more sluggish. It feeds on grasses 
and other low plants. 

In about six weeks' time it is full grown, when it still resembles the caterpillar 
of Mela ucJtra insignis, except that its colouring is considerably darker, and a number 
of rust-red spots are situated on the subdorsal line. This larva also appears to spend the 
daytime underground, only coming abroad in the evening to feed. The pupa is concealed 
in the earth. 

The perfect insect may be occasionally found at rest on tree-trunks in the forest, 
where it is very hard to discover, as it almost exactly resembles a little patch of umss 
or lichen. Specimens are sometimes noticed in the middle of winter, so there is little 
doubt that this species hibernates. It occurs in spring as late as November, and as the 
pupte emerge during the latter end of January the insect is about for most of the year. 

MELANCHRA LITHIAS, Meyr. 
{Mamestra lithias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst, xix. 17.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 33.) 
Two specimens of this species were taken at Castle Hill by Mr. J. I). Enys, and tire 
now in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

The expansion of the wings is lj inches. The fore-ioings are slaty-broion ; there is a broken, 
black-edged, white, transverse line near the base, and another at about one-third; tie- orbicular is indi- 
cated by a conspicuous black-edged white crescent, the reniform is large, oblong, white, margined with 



18 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

black, and crossed by two grey lines ; there is an interrupted white terminal transverse line and a 
series of black dots on the termen. The hind-wings are grey, paler towards the base ; the cilia of all 
the wings are slaty-brown. 

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

MELANCHKA MUTANS, Walk. 

(Hadena mutans, Walk., Noct. 602. H. lignifusca, ib. 603. Mamestra angusta, Feld., Keis. Nov., 
pi. cix. ly. M. acceptrix, ib., pi. cix. 19. Hadena debit is, Butl, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 3«5, 
pi. xlii. 6. Mamestra mutans, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 17.) 

Plate IV., fig. 34 <? , 35 2 , 36 3 , variety ; Plate III., tig. 15, larva.) 

This is a very abundant species throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about li inches. The fore-wings are pale reddish-brown in the 
male, grey in the female ; the markings are black and somewhat indistinct ; the orbicular spot 
is nearly round, the claviform semicircular, the reniform large and not margined with black towards 
the termen ; a line runs parallel with the termen, and emits on its outer side a tooth-like mark ; inside 
this line the ground colouring of the wing is usually lighter. The hind-wings are grey, darker in the 
male ; the cilia are white with a cloudy line. The head, thorax, and abdomen are brown in the male, 
grey in the female. The antennas are slightly bipectinate in the male. 

This species varies much in the ground colouring of the fore-wings, especially in the 
male, where it ranges from pale pinkish-brown to dark brown. The wings of the female 
are frequently much clouded with dark grey. 

The larva is rather stout, with the anterior segments wrinkled. It varies much in colour ; the 
dorsal surface is usually reddish-brown ; the lateral line is broad and black ; a series of subdorsal 
stripes are also black ; the ventral surface is green. Sometimes these markings are hardly visible, and 
the larva is entirely green, whilst occasionally the brown colouring predominates. 

It is a sluggish caterpillar, and feeds on low plants (Plantago, &c.) during the whole 
of the spring and summer. It often frequents the luxuriant growth surrounding logs and 
stones which have long been left undisturbed. 

The pupa state is spent in the earth or amongst moss on fallen trees. When this 
stage occurs in the summer it is of short duration, but in the case of larvae becoming full 
grown in the autumn, the regular emergence does not take place until the following spring. 

The moth may be observed on mild evenings nearly all the year round, but is com- 
moner during the summer. It is an extremely abundant species, and is very often seen 
resting on tree trunks during the daytime, in which position the colouring of both sexes 
will be seen to be very protective. 

MELANCHKA AGOBASTIS, Meyr. 
[Mamestra agorastis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 18.) 
(Plate V., fig. 30 2 .) 
This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at Akaroa and Lake 
Guyon in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1] inches. The fore-wings are rich reddish-brown, with dull 
yellowish-white markings; the claviform is small, grey, margined with dark reddish-brown; the 
orbicular is also rather small, grey, margined with dull white ; the reniform is rather large, oblong, 
dark grey, margined rather broadly with yellowish-white. The hind-wings are dark brown. The 
antenna of the male are shortly pectinated. 

This species very closely resembles a dark specimen of Melanchra pelistis so far as the 
female is concerned, which is the only sex I have had an opportunity of examining. 
The perfect insect appears in February and March. It is a scarce species. 



I. —THE CABADBININA. 10 

MELANCHEA PICTULA, White. 

(Dianthoecia pictula, White, Tayl. New Zeal., pi i. 3. Meterana pictula, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. LoncL, 

1S77, 386, pi. xlii. 1. Mamestra pictula, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. six. 18.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 37 2 ■) 

Three specimens of this handsome species have occnrred at Lake Coleridge in the 

South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are grey, very faintly tinged with pink, 
the markings are yellowish-green margined with black, the reniform is large, oral, clear white, with a 
minute white dot above and below it, there is a series of conspicuous black-edged yellow spots near the 
terrnen ; the cilia are grey with a series of minute black and white dots at their base. The hind- 
wings are pale crimson sliadcd with dark grey near the termen, there is an obscure grey spot near the 
middle ; the cilia are grey. The sides of the abdomen are bright crimson. 
The moth appears in March. 
Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

MELANCHEA BHODOPLEUEA, Meyr. 
(Mamestra rhodopleura, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. six. 19.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 38.) 
This species has been taken in the North Island at Napier and Wellington. 
The expansion of the wings is 1} inches. The fore-wings are greenish-grey, with the markings 
yellow margined with black ; the hind-wings are dark grey with a terminal series of small yellow spots. 
The sides of the abdomen are bright crimson. 

This insect is very closely allied to Melanchra pictula, but the absence of the white 
reniform spot ami the grey hind-wings, /rill at once distinguish it /ram that species. 
The perfect insect appears in May and June. It is decidedly rare. 

MELANCHRA MEEOPE, n. sp. 

(Plate V., fig. 2.) 

A single specimen of this handsome insect was taken in the Wellington Botanical 
Gardens in October, 1887. 

The expansion of the wings is nearly two inches. The fore-wings are rich chocolate-brown, with 
i/ellaw markings outlined in very deep brown : there is a rather broad broken transverse line near the 
base; a yellow blotch containing a slender curved brown line, on the dorsum at about one-fourth, 
forming the end of another extremely broken transverse line: the reniform is large, finely outlined 
with brown towards the base of the wing and half filed in with yellow towards the termen ; between 
the r, inform and the dorsum there is a jagged yellow transverse line ; there is a terminal series of dark 
brown streaks and yellow spots, and the termen itself is scalloped ; the cilia are dark brown. The 
hind-wings are pale brown, pinkish tinged ; there is an obscure terminal line ; the cilia are brownish- 
pmk. The head and thorax are dark brown, the abdomen pale brown, with the crests darker. 

MELANCHEA PELISTIS, Meyr. 
(Mamestra pelistis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 20.) 
(Plate V., fig. 3 $ , 4 ? .) 
This species has occnrred at Wellington and at Paikakariki, in the North Island. 
In the South Island it has been found at Akaroa and Lake Coleridge. 

The expansion of the wings is about H inches. The fore-wings are dull ochreous more or 
less shaded with dark reddish-brown, especially in the vicinity of the transverse lines; there 
are several obscure pale marks near the base; the orbicular is grey, margined towards the dorsum 
with a conspicuous white or dull yellow crescentic line; the clamform is small, round, dull grey, 
edged with darker; the reniform is large, darker grey, paler towards the casta, margined with 



20 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

white or dull yellow towards tlic base of the wing and termen ; there are two obscure transverse 
lines, the outer one often being slightly toothed towards the termen ; sometimes there is a 
terminal series of minute black marks ; the cilia are brown. The hind-wings are dark grey, with 
the cilia white. 

This species varies considerably in the ground colouring of the fore-wings. In 
some specimens the wing is almost entirely rich reddish-brown, whilst in others this 
colouring is confined to the vicinity of the stigmata and transverse lines. Numerous 
intermediate varieties exist which seem to connect these two forms. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. It is very common 
in the Wellington Botanical Gardens on the white rata blossoms. 

MELANCHEA PEOTEASTIS, Meyr. 

(Mamestra vitiosa, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 20 (nee Butl). Mamestra proteastis, Meyr., 
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 45.) 
(Plate IV., fig. 40 J .) 

This insect is very common in the neighbourhood of Christchurch. 

The expansion of the wings is I{ inches. The fore-wings are dark chocolate-brown ; there 
are several very obscure marks near the base, the orbicular and claviform spots are almost 
invisible, the reniform is pale brown with a minute dot above and below it towards the termen, 
followed by a pale, darker-margined, transverse line. The hind-wings are dull brownish-grey, 
with the cilia paler. The female is rather darker in colour than the male. 

This is a very obscurely marked insect, closely allied to the next species, from which it 
can only be distinguished with difficulty. Its somewhat smaller size and the two minute white 
dots on the reniform stigma appeal- to be the must definite characteristics. 

The perfect insect appeal's in May and June. 

Described and figured from specimens in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

MELANCHEA VITIOSA, Butl. 

(Apamea vitiosa, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pi. xlii. 3. Mamestra ochthistis, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xix. 20. Mamestra vitiosa, Meyr. Trans. N. Z. Inst., xx. 45.) 

(Plate IV., fig. 42; Plate III., fig. 16, larva.)- 

This is a scarce species in the neighbourhood of Wellington. In Christchurch it 
is very common. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. In general colouration it closely resembles the 
preceding insect, but is considerably paler, with the markings much more distinct. There are 
no clear white dots above or below the reniform stigma, the orbicular is obliquely oval and 
rather conspicuous, and the claviform is strongly margined with black. 

Tbc larva is rather robust, very pale green above with numerous white lines and dots ; 
dark green beneath with yellow dots. In the light part there is a triangle of black spots on 
each segment. The young larva has a strong pink lateral line, but in mature specimens this 
line is confined to the anterior and posterior segments only. Length when full grown about 
l-l- inches. 

This caterpillar feeds on Melicope simplex, and when amongst the foliage of its 
food-plant it is extremely hard to detect, owing to its protective colouring and sluggish 
habits. Tlic larva is full grown about October. 

The pupa is enclosed in a light cocoon on the surface of the ground. 

The perfect insect appears from November till April. 



I.— THE CARADRININA. 21 

MELANCHEA DIATMETA, Meyr.* 

(Plate V., fig. 5.) 

This species has occurred at Wellington. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are reddish-brown ; there is a 
short longitudinal black streak near the base, an obscure yellow transverse line at about one- 
fourth, and several short oblique brown or yellow marks on the eosta ; the orbicular is oval oblique 
outlined very distinctly in yellow ; the reniform is white, margined with yellow towards the base 
of the wing; there is a black longitudinal streak at flic base mi the dorsum, which bends upwards 
nt about mi, ■-fourth, mill runs in a somewhat curved direction to a little above the tornus. 
The veins are faintly marked in black, and there are several large yellow dots between the 
veins near the termen ; the termen itself is slightly indented, the cilia are reddish-brown. The 
hind-wings are greyish-brown with the cilia reddish. There are two very conspicuous curved 
yellowish stripes on each side of the thorax. 

The perfect insect appears in September and October. It is a rare species. 

MELANCHEA TAETAEEA, Butl. 
(Graphiphora tartarea, Butl, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 384, pi. xlii. 2. Mamestra tartarea, Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 21.) 
(Plate Y., fig. 6.) 

This species has occurred on the Murimutu Plains in the North Island. In the 
South Island it is a common species in tin' neighbourhood of Christchurch. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 \ inches. The fore-wings are dark chocolate-brown; there is 
a short, dark-margined, pale transverse line near the base, and another at about one-third, the 
claviforrn spot is small, oval, dark brown, margined with black, the orbicular ami reniform are very 
huge, pale brown and very conspicuous; there is a broad pale brown terminal band, and a narrow 
shading of pale brown along tin dorsum. The hind-wings are dark grey and the cilia, dull white. 

This species can easily be recognised by the pale terminal baud of the fore-wings. 

The perfect insect appears in March and April. 

MELANCHRA HOMOSCIA, Meyr. 

[Mamestra homoscia, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 21.) 

(Plate V., fig. 7; Plate IIP, fig. 10, larva.) 

This dull-looking species has hitherto only occurred in the Wellington district, 
where it seems to be fairly common. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are uniform dark' grey; 
the veins are marked with a series of white dots, preceded and followed by black marks ; the 
orbicular, reniform, and claviforrn spots are scarcely visible; an indistinct wavy line runs 
parallel with the termen. The hind-wings are grey ; the cilia are white with a cloudy line. 
The head, thorax, and abdomen are grey. 

Sometimes the grey colouring is very much darker, and a faint wavy line is present between 
the orbicular spot and the base of the wing. In other respects the species does not vary. 

The larva is rather attenuated and black in colour; the dorsal line is narrow and bright 
yellow; the subdorsal is broader and white; and the lateral line is pale brown. The head, 
legs, prolegs, and under surface are pale brown, speckled with Mack ; the spiracles are pink ; a 
conspicuous white spot is situated above the spiracles. 

This caterpillar feeds on the Tauhinu (Pomaderris ericifoUa) in December and 
January. It is very active in its habits, and immediately drops to the ground 
when disturbed. It is much infested by a dipterous parasite. The pupa state is 
spent in the earth and lasts about six weeks. 

The moth appears in February, March, and April. It is attracted by light, 
and in consequence often enters houses. 

+ This species has been recently named by Mi'. Meyrick, but a description of it has not yet been published. 



22 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

MELANCHRA 0M1CR0N, n. sp. 

(Plate V., fig. 42.) 
This species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. A. Norris. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1J inches. The fore-wings are pale olive-green, mottled 
and striped with dull grey ; there is a double transverse line near the base, another at about one- 
fourth, and another at about one-half, passing between the orbicular and the reniform ; beyond 
this there are two indistinct shaded lines, and a terminal series of black marks ; the orbicular 
is large, almost circular, ami sharply outlined in black ; the claviform is small and indistinct, and 
the reniform ill-defined, obscurely outlined in black towards the base. The hind-wings are 
brownish-grey, darker towards the termen. 

The perfect insect appears in November. 

MELANCHRA COMPOSITA, Gn. 

(Cloantha composite,, Gn., Noct. vi. 114. Auchmis composite/,, Walk., Noct. 616; Butl., Voy. Ereb., 
pi. ix. 12. Mamestra maori, Feld., Eeis. Nov., pi. cix. 24. Leucania tleiitigera, Butl. Mamestra composite!, 
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 22.) 

(Plate V., fig. 8 ,?, 9 ? ; Plate III., fig. 7, larva.) 

One of the most abundant of our night-flying moths, occurring in great profusion 
throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1^ inches. The fore-wings are pale reddish-brown, 
darker towards the middle. There are two elongate, pointed, white markings touching the 
termen below the middle, and a central white streak, interrupted in the middle, by a small 
semicircular white mark, which represents the lower portion of the reniform spot ; the orbicular 
and claviform spots are obsolete. The hind-wings are dark grey. The head and thorax are 
reddish-brown, and the abdomen is dark grey. The antennae are serrate in the male but simple 
in the female. In some specimens the white markings are more extensive than usual, but 
otherwise there are no important variations. 

The larva is bright reddish-brown ; the dorsal stripe is broad and black ; the subdorsal 
narrower, edged with white ; the lateral lines are dull red, white, and black ; the ventral surface, 
head, legs, and prolegs are greenish-grey with black markings ; the spiracles are black. 

This caterpillar varies considerably in the intensity of the light and dark 
markings. It feeds on grasses in January and September, and is very active. It 
often occurs in prodigious numbers, and at such times may frequently be seen 
travelling at a great rate over bare ground in search of food. Amongst the grass 
it is hard to detect, as the striped colouring is very protective in that situation. 

The pupa state is spent in the earth, or under moss on fallen trees. 

The moth appears from September till April. It is double-brooded. A few of 
the second brood emerge in the autumn and hibernate as moths, but the majority 
pass the winter in the pupa state. Hence we sometimes meet with specimens on 
mild evenings in the middle of winter. 

This insect is much attracted by light, and occasionally assembles in vast 
numbers round a brilliant lamp. I have had as many as one hundred specimens 
in my verandah at Karori, attracted during two or three hours. It is by far the 
commonest insect at the collectors' sugar, the numerous visitors of this species 
eagerly jostling each other in their haste to obtain a share of the sweets. 
M. composita is likewise observed in the utmost profusion on attractive flowers of 
all kinds, crowding out the rarer and more aristocratic species. Mr. Ilaniiy has 
drawn my attention to the remarkable habit this insect has of suddenly stopping 



I.— THE GABADBININA. 23 

during its flight, and thus eluding pursuit. It also takes wing with unusual rapidity. 

Specimens of this moth may constantly be observed at rest in various situations 

during the daytime, when the protective character of the colouring will be at once 

apparent, especially when the insect is partially concealed amongst grass. Mr. 

Meyrick informs us that this species is common in Tasmania and South-Eastern 
Australia. 

MELANCHRA STEEOPASTIS, Meyr. 

[Mamestra sterojpastis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 22.) 
(Plate V., fig. 10 J, 11 <?.) 

This insect has occurred in the North Island at Napier. In the South Island it 
has been taken at Blenheim and Christchurch, but does not seem to be a common 
species anywhere. 

The expansion of the wings is from 1} to lh inches, fn general appearance it somewhat 
resembles the preceding species, from which it may chiefly he distinguished by the absence of 
the sharp white central line ami conspicuous tooth-like markings near the termen. There is itlsa 
a minute white dot situated at the /miction of reins 3 and 4 of the f ore- wings. The hind-wings 
are dark grey. 

The perfect insect appears from November till February. 

Described and figured from Mr. Fereday's specimens. 

MELANCHRA INFENSA. Walk. 
(Orthosia infensa, Walk. 748. Mamestra arachnias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 23. Mamestra infensa, 

Meyr., ib. xx. 45.) 
(Plate V., fig. 12.) 

This species has occurred in the North Island at Napier, and in the South Island 
at Blenheim. 

The expansion of the wings is about 11 inches. The fore-win^s are reddish-brown, slightly 
speckled with dull white except on a suffused central streak from the base to about two-thirds; an 
obscure, moderately broad white costal streak extends from the base to two-thirds, sharply defined 
near the base only, and containing several very oblique ill-defined blackish marks ; the orbicular is 
narrow oval, longitudinal, very finely margined with white and then with black ; the claviform 
is obsolete ; the reniform is only indicated by two white dots, representing its lower angles ; the 
transverse lines are very acutely dentate but hardly traceable ; the subterminal line is indicated 
only by three very acute slender whitish-ochreous dentations — one below apex, two touching the 
termen below the middle; the cilia are reddish-brown mixed with dull white. The hind-wings 
are dark grey; the cilia arc dull white, with a faint grey line and tips white. The head, palpi, 
and thorax are reddish-brown speckled with white ; the forehead with two black transverse lines; 
and the collar with a slender white line ; thorax with strong anterior double tuft. Abdomen light 
reddish-grey. 

Description compiled from that of Mr. Meyrick. Figured by Mr. W. B. Hudson from 
a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

MELANCHRA OMOPLACA, Meyr. 

[Mamestra omoplaca, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 24.) 

(Plate V., fig. 13.) 

This species has occurred in the South Island at Lake Coleridge and Kakaia. 

The expansion of the wings is about L inches. The fore-wings are dark reddish-brown, there 

is a short black median streak from the base, margined above with ochreous-white ; the space 

between this and the costa is marked with suffused ochreous-whitish lines ; in one specimen 



24 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

a blackish suffusion extending from base of the dorsum obliquely to orbicular and reniform, the 
space between this and the subterminal line is suffused with pale whitish-ochreous ; the orbicular 
and reniform are blackish-fuscous, black-margined, and connected by a blackish-fuscous spot ; the 
orbicular is large, roundish ; the reniform with its outer edge white ; the claviform is small, suboval, 
blackish-fuscous ; the transverse lines are indistinct ; the subterminal is obscurely paler or hardly 
traceable, with two somewhat acute dentations below the middle ; the terminal space is mixed 
with blackish-fuscous ; the cilia are reddish-fuscous mixed with blackish. The hind-wings are 
fuscous-grey ; the cilia grey-whitish, with a grey line. 

The perfect insect appeal's in December, February, and March. 

Description compiled from that of Mr. Meyrick. Figured by Mr. W. B. Hudson 
from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

MELANCHEA ALCYONE, n. sp. 
(Plate V., fig. 1-1 J .) 

During the autumn of 1894 several specimens of this interesting species were 
captured in the Wellington Botanical Gardens by Mr. A Norris. 

The expansion of the wings of the S is If inches, of the 1 \\ inches The fore-wings of the 
male are warm brown, darker towards the base; there is a wavy, white-edged, black, transverse line 
at about one-fifth, followed by a round black spot; the casta is yellowish, with four pairs of .short 
oblique black marks; the orbicular is large, oval, oblique, pale yellowish-brown slightly darker in 
the middle ; the claviform is small, obscure, and brownish-black ; the reniform is black, outlined with 
dull white; there is a series of very acute, dull white, tooth-like terminal markings, and the termen 
itself is slightly scalloped ; the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are grey with a series of small 
dark marks on the termen ; the cilia are reddish -ochreous. The head and anterior portion of 
the thorax are reddish-ochreous ; the rest of the thorax is rich brown, and there is a conspicuous 
black transverse line between the pale and dark colouring; the abdomen is reddish-ochreous with 
the crests reddish-brown. The female is much darker and duller than the male, the markings are 
much less distinct, there are several additional jagged transverse lines, and the white markings of the 
male are indistinctly indicated in drab. 

The perfect insect appears in March. 

MELANCHEA DOT AT A, Walk. 
(Dasypolia dotata, Walk., Noct. 522. Mamestra dotata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst, xix. 21.) 
(Plate V., fig. lb\) 
This species has occurred at Nelson. 

The expansion of the wings is lh inches. The fore-wings are very dark brownish-black; there 
are several obscure black marks near the base; the orbicular is large, oblong, finely margined with 
black, the claviform is triangular, also finely margined with black, both orbicular and claviform 
are surrounded by a conspicuous black shading ; the reniform is large ear-shaped, white towards the 
termen ami dark brown towards the base of the icing, the white portion is traversed by a curved 
brownish line ; there is a curved transverse line near the termen, the space immediately inside 
this line being paler than the rest of the wing ; there is a terminal series of obscure pale dots. 
The hind-wings are dark brown, paler towards the base ; the cilia are also brown. 

A single specimen of this insect was reared from a pupa found at Wakapuaka, 
near Nelson. Mr. Fereday also has a specimen, but without note of locality. 

MELANCHEA ASTEEOPE, n. sp. 
(Plate V., fig. 15.) 
A single specimen of this insect was taken at light on the Tableland of Mount 
Arthur, in January L891, at about 3,600 feet above the sea level. 

The expansion of the wines is 1| inches. The fore-wings are dull brown with a pale area on 
the dorsum near the base, and a very broad pale band just before the termen ; there is a bmken black- 



I.— THE CABADBININA. 25 

edged transverse line near the base, and a fainter transverse line at about one-third ; the orbicular 
is oblong, the claviform crescentic, and the reniform oblong, white, and very conspicuous, all are strongly 
outlined in black; there is a shaded transverse line on each side of the broad pale terminal band ; 
the termen is dark brown ; the cilia are brown, and the veins are marked in black. The hind-wings 
are pale grey ; there is a rather conspicuous dark crescent in the middle, and two shaded transverse 
lines ; the cilia are grey. 

This species is evidently allied to Melanchra dotata. 

MELANCHRA STIPATA, Walk. 

{Xylina stipata, Walk., Suppl. 753. Mamestra stipata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 25.) 

(Plate V., fig. 17 ? .) 

This line species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and in the 
South Island at Christchurch, and West Plains, near Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore- wings are brown ; there is a shaded, pale 
yellowish-brown, longitudinal line on the costa, and an extensive irregular patch of the same colour 
from about tzvo-thirds to within a short distance of the termen; the orbicular is large, oval, oblique, 
pale yellowish-brown; the claviform is semicircular, broadly margined with black; the reniform is 
dull grey, with one large and one small white mark towards the termen ; the termen is broadly 
shaded with dark blackish-brown, except near the apex of the wing and a little below the middle. 
The hind-wings are dark brownish-grey, with the cilia reddish-brown. The female is rather paler 
with a slightly olive tinge. Both sexes vary a little in the depth of their colouring. 

The perfect insect appears from October till May. It is common at Christchurch, 
but rather scarce in Wellington. 

MELANCHRA OCTANS, n. sp. 
(Plate V., fig 1.) 

This distinctly marked little species was discovered by Mr. Philpott, at Mount 
Linton, near Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are pale ochreous-brown ; there are 
several wavy brown transverse lines near the base, two lines at about one-third, then a large V-shaped 
white mark extending almost from the costa ami touching the dorsum; the orbicular and reniform 
spots are situated in the middle of this mark, the orbicular is very finely outlined in brown, and 
contains a black dot towards the base of the wing ; the reniform is large, dark brown, surrounded by 
a large triangular dark brown shading ; there is an obscure subterminal line ; the termen is slightly 
indented. The hind-wings are dark brown, paler towards the termen. 

This species may be immediately recognised by the large, white, V-shaped markings 
on the fore-wings. 

The perfect insect appears in March. 

MELANCHRA RUBESCENS, Butl. 
(Xylophasia rubescens, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 489. Mamestra rubescens, Meyr., Trans. N. /. Inst. xix. 25.) 
(Plate V., fig. 18 3 .) 
This insect is apparently a mountain species. It has been taken at Mount Arthur, 
Castle Hill, and Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are pale orange-brown, the 
orbicular and claviform spots are faintly margined with reddish-brown ; the reniform is dark brown 
and very conspicuous ; there are two large reddish-brown markings on the termen. The hind-wings 
are dark grey tinged with red. The cilia of all the wings are reddish-brown. 

This species varies slightly in the shape and extent of the markings on the termen 



26 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPTDOPTEBA. 

of the fore-wings, which occasionally cause the pale ground colour to form tooth-like 
projections. It also varies a little in the intensity of the other markings, and in the 
depth of the ground colour. 

The moth appears in January and February, and is attracted by light. I have taken 
it in some abundance on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at an altitude of 3,500 feet 
above the sea-level. 

MELANCHEA LIGNANA, Walk. 

(TIalena liijnana, Walk., Noct. 758. ? Xyhphasia morosa, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 543. Mamestra lignana, 

Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 26.) 

(Plate V., fig. 19 S .) 

This pretty species is very common at Wellington in the North Island. In the 
South Island it has occurred at Mount Hutt. 

The expansion of the wings is \\ inches. The fore-wings are greyish-cream-colour, slightly paler 
on the costa. There are two very distinct blackish transverse marks on the. costa near the base, and 
two others at about one-third ; the stigmata are all sharply and finely outlined in black ; the orbicular 
is oval, the claviform triangular, the reniform large and oblong, containing a smaller black-edged mark 
in its centre, and a blackish blotch towards its lower margin; beyond the reniform there is a faint 
jagged transverse line ; there are two dark patches on the termen, the pale ground colour forming two 
sharp tooth-like markings slightly below the middle; the termen itself is slightly indented, and the 
cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are dark grey with the cilia white. 

Some specimens of this insect are slightly darker than others, but in other respects 
there are no important variations. 

The perfect insect appears from October till April. It comes freely to sugar and 
to light, and is often taken at rest on trees and fences in the daytime. 

MELANCHEA CCELENO, n. sp. 
(Plate IV., fig. 39.) 

This interesting species has been taken at Wellington by Messrs. Hawthorne 
and Norris. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are very pale brownish-cream-colour ; 
there is a large irregular dark brown patch on the dorsum from about one-eighth to about two-thirds, 
another smaller patch at the tornus, and another still smaller on the termen a little above the middle ; 
there are two very obscure transverse lines ; the orhicular is finely outlined in brown ; the reniform 
contains two very dark brown dots, and is rather strongly outlined in brown towards the base. The 
hind-wings are dark grey. The cilia of all the wings are grey with a paler line. 

The perfect insect appears in November. 

MELANCHEA USTISTEIGA, Walk. 

(Xylina ustistriga, Walk., Noct. 630. X. lignisecta, ib., 631. Mamestra ustistriga, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xix. 26.) 

(Plate V., fig. 20 $ , '20a ? .) 

This beautiful insect has occurred commonly at Wellington in the North Island, 

and in the South Island, at Blenheim, Cbristchurch, and Lake Coleridge. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings, head, and thorax are pinkish- 
grey in the male, pale grey in female ; the orbicular spot is rather large, nearly round, finely outline// 
in black ; the reniform is very large, margined with black towards the base of the wing, and usually 
touching the orbicular spot or connected with it by a short black line ; the claviform is triangular, also 
black margined ; there is a cloudy oblique line below the reniform, and an irregular line between the 
reniform and the termen. The hind-wings and abdomen are pale pinkish-grey in male, dull grey in 
Eemale ; the cilia are white with a cloudy line. 



I.— THE CABADBININA. 27 

This insect varies slightly in size, especially in the female. The larva is dull 
greyish-brown, with the subdorsal and lateral lines darker. It feeds on honeysuckle 
during the summer months. 

The pupa state is spent in the earth. 

The moth is very irregular in its appearance. I have captured specimens in 
January, February, March, April, July and September. It appears to pass the winter 
in both the pupa and imago states. It is very partial to light, and in consequence often 
enters houses. 

MELANCHEA PKIONISTIS, Meyr. 

(Mamestra prionistis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 27.) 

(Plate V., fig. '21 <?.) 

This species is common at Wellington in the North Island. In the South Island 
it has been taken at Rakaia. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 1| inches, of the female 14 inches. The fore-wings 
arc rather pale yellowish-brown, witli numerous irregular longitudinal grey streaks ; there are several 
very obscure jagged transverse lines, and the stigmata are almost invisible ; a very broad blackish 
longitudinal band is situated an the dorsum. The hind-wings are brownish-grey; the cilia are grey 
tipped with white. The head and thorax are grey tinged with yellowish-brown ; there is a con- 
spicuous blackish streak on each side of the thorax. 

In this species the dorsal band is often considerably paler, but otherwise there is 
no variation. 

The perfect insect appears from November till April. It comes freely to sugar, and 
occasionally to light. It is also sometimes met with at rest on trees in the daytime, 
where its colouring is protective. I have noticed that this moth is much commoner 
in some years than in others. 

MELANCHKA PHRICIAS, Meyr. 
(Mamestra temperata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 27 (nee Walk.). Mamestra phricias, Meyr., ib., xx. 46.) 

(Plate V., fig. 22.) 

This species has occurred in the Manawatu district in the North Island. In the 
South Island it has been found at Christchurch and Lake Coleridge. 

The expansion of the wings is about U inches. The fore-wings are pale silvery-grey ; there are 
several obscure blackish marks near the base, two dark, shaded, transverse hands, one just before the 
orbicular, and one between the orbicular and the reniform. : the orbicular is round, nearly white, with 
a faint greyish ring in the middle ; the reniform is large, oblong, margined first with white and then 
with black ; there is a series of black crescentic marks near the termen, and another smaller series on 
the termen ; the cilia are dark grey. The hind-wings are dull brownish-grey, the cilia are grey tipped 
with white. The terminal joint of the palpi is elongated. 

The perfect insect has been taken in December, February, March and June, and 
is attracted by light. It is rather a rare species. 

MELANCHKA CUCULLINA, (in. 

(Xylocampa cucullina, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 40. Agrotis mitis, Butl., l'roc. Zool. Koc. Lond., 1877, 383, 

pi. xlii. 5. Mamestra cucullina, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 28.) 

(Plate V., fig. 23 $.) 

This species has occurred at Mount Arthur, and at Rakaia. 

The expansion of the wings is 1£ inches. The fore-wings arc bluish-grey, speckled and dappled 
with blackish-brown ; there is a pale transverse line near the base, partially edged with black ; the 
orbicular is round, containing a blackish dot in the middle ; the reniform is elongate-oval, including a 



28 NEW ZEALAND MACB0-LEP1D0PTEBA. 

dark spot in its lower portion ; the space surrounding the stigmata is clouded with dark blackish- 
brown ; there is a terminal series of small blackish crescentic marks, and the cilia are dark grey. The 
hind-wings are brownish-grey ; the cilia are also grey tipped with white. 

This species is evidently closely allied to M. phricias, but may at present be 
distinguished by its darker and more bluish colouring. 

The perfect insect appears in January and March. I have taken it at light on 
the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at 3,600 feet above the sea-level. 

Genus 8.— ERANA, Walk. 

" Eyes hairy. Antenna3 in male filiform, simple, with scattered single cilia. Thorax with 
anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen with strong dorsal crests towards base. Fore-wings in 
male beneath with a very long dense tuft of scent-giving hairs from base ; transverse vein absent, 
7 and 8 out of '.), 10 free. Hind-wings with transverse vein absent, costa in male broadly dilated." — 
(Meyrick.) (Plate II., tig. 9 fore-wing, 10 hind-wing.) * 

We have one species representing this interesting genus. 

EEANA GEAMINOBA, Walk. 

(Eraita graminosa, Walk., Noct. 605. E. v'ujois, ib., Suppl. 743. Erana graminosa, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xix. 28.) 

(Plate V., fig. 24 3 , 25 ? ; Plate III., fig. 8, larva.) 

This beautiful species appears to be fairly common in many forests in the North 
Island. It has occurred at Wanganui, Masterton, Palmerston, and Wellington. In 
the South Island it has been taken by Mr. Philpott, at West Plains, near Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1J inches. The fore-wings are bright green ; there are 
three paler green transverse lines, edged with black ; one near the base of the wing, one just beyond 
the reniform spot, and one close to the termen ; this last is inwardly much clouded with dark olive- 
green ; the reniform spot is pale green edged with black. The hind-wings are very broad, pinkish- 
brown, tinged with green on the termen. In the female the hind-wings are considerably narrower, 
and are not so strongly tinged with green as in the male. 

Home specimens appear to be rather darker than others, but beyond this I have not 
detected any variation. 

The eggs are rather large, globular, flattened above and beneath, and pale green 
in colour. 

The larva feeds on the mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus). 

When first excluded from the egg it is about ^ inch long, and of a very pale green colour. 
After the first moult the caterpillar is bright green, darker towards the head, with white dorsal, 
subdorsal, and lateral lines; there are eight rows of shining black spots, each spot emitting a number 
of stout black bristles ; the head is yellowish-brown with a few black dots. After the last moult the 
larva has a totally different appearance. It is pale green marbled with darker green ; there is often 
a whitish lateral line, and an obscure series of diagonal green stripes on the sides of each segment. 
Sometimes the whole larva has a pinkish-brown tinge, and there are often two or three rows of pale 
spots. In fact the full-grown caterpillar is very variable in its colouring. 

These Larvae hibernate during the winter months, often secreting themselves in the 
burrows which have been made in the stems of the mahoe by various species of wood- 
boring insects. They come abroad about the end of August, and are lull grown early 
in October. The pupa state is spent in the earth. 

The moth appears in December, January, February, March and April. It is often 

Tlir accurate ascertainment of the positions of the veins near the costa in this species is a matter of considerable 
difficulty owinj; to the extremely dense tuft of hairs there situated. 



I.— THE CARADRININA. 29 

found at rest on tree-trunks in the daytime, where its beautiful green colouring causes it 
to resemble, in the closest possible manner, a patch of moss. Mr. Hawthorne tells me 
that he has frequently found dead specimens in this situation. 

This insect is, I think, commoner at slight elevations above the sea-level, forest 
ranges of from 500 to 1,000 feet in height being apparently the most favourable localities 
for the species. The appearance of the moth over so long a period would seem to 
indicate that there are two generations in a year, but I have never found full-grown 
larvae in the middle of summer. There is, however, no doubt that the insect passes the 
winter in the larval condition. This species is often met with very late in the season, 
frequenting the few remaining blossoms of the white rata until the first or second week 
in April. Mr. Meyrick thus alludes to the scented tuft of hairs in the male insect : 
" The large tuft of the fore-wings is the source of a very strong vanilla-like perfume, 
which scents the box in which the specimens are contained for more than a week after 
their death ; the scent is excited more strongly, even in the dead specimen, by stirring 
the tuft with a pin." * 

I can fully testify to the accuracy of this interesting observation. 



Sub-family 3.—CABAD1UNIDES. 
" Eyes naked, not ciliated." 

Genus 9.— BITYLA, Walk. 
"Antennae in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax not crested, collar sub-erect. Abdomen not 
crested." — (Meyrick). 

Of this genus we have two species in New Zealand. 

BITYLA DEFIGUBATA, Walk. 

{Xylina defigurata, Walk., Suppl. 75(3. Bityla thoracica, ib. SOU Bityla defigurata, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. six. 31.) 

(Plate V., fig. 33.) 

Tins species has been taken at Palmerston in the North Island, and at Blenheim, 

Christchurch, Lake Coleridge, Dunedin, and West Plains near Invercargill, in the South 

Island. 

The expansion of the wings is li inches. The fore-wings arc uniform dull bronzy-brown and very 
glossy ; there are one or two faint indications of transverse lines. The hind-wings are dark grey, also 
glossy. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March, and is attracted by 
light. The single specimen I possess in my collection was taken in July, evidently 
hibernating. It is a rare species. 

BITYLA SEEICEA, Butl. 
(Bityla serieea, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lund. 1877, 387, pi. xlii. VI ; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 31.) 

(Plate V., fig. 34.) 

This rather striking insect has occurred at AVellington in the North Island, and at 
Christchurch and Lake Guyon in the South Island. 

: Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. '29. 



30 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are very dark greyish-black, 
darker near the termcn, and very glossy ; there are several isolated white scales towards the base of the 
wing, and a very obscure transverse line at about three-fourths; the cilia are cream colour and very 
conspicuous. The hind-wings are dark grey and glossy ; the cilia are pale grey, very broadly tipped 
with cream colour. 

The perfect insect appears in February and March, and is attracted by light. It is a 
rather scarce species. 



Genus 10.— AGBOTIS, Ochs. 

Head rough-scaled ; eyes naked. Antenna? in 3 ciliated, often acutely bidentate or bipectinated, 
with apex simple. Thorax usually with more or less developed anterior and posterior crests. 
Abdomen not crested. Tibse all spinose. 

"A very large genus occurring all over the world but much more plentifully in the 
northern hemisphere. The larvae are very indiscriminate in their tastes, often feeding on 
almost any low plant ; they are frequently subterranean in habit, but usually emerge by 
night to feed." — (Meyrick.) 

This genus is represented in New Zealand by live species, one of which is an insect of 
almost world-wide distribution. 



AGROTIS YPSILON, Eott. 

(Noctua ypsilon, Eott. Agrotis suffusa, Hb. Agrotis ypsilon, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 32.) 
(Plate V., fig. 35 S , 36 ? .) 

This handsome insect is probably very common throughout the country. It has 
occurred abundantly at Napier, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, Ashburton and 
Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is 2 inches. The fore- wings are pale brown, shaded with rich brown 
on the costa and termen ; the reniform is large and black, with a conspicuous longitudinal streak 
pointing towards the termen ; the orbicular is round, centred with black ; the claviform is elongate ; 
there is a dark shaded line below the reniform, followed by a double wavy transverse black line. The 
hind-wings are grey with pinkish reflections ; they are shaded with darker grey towards the termen ; 
the cilia are white, the head and thorax are dark brown, the abdomen grey. In the female the brown 
costal shading extends across the central portions of the fore-wings to the dorsum, and the general 
colouring is also darker. 

There are no noteworthy variations in either sex. The larva feeds on the roots of 
grasses. Its head is pale brown mottled with darker brown, and its body is lead-colour 
with darker dorsal and lateral lines. It remains underground during the daytime, coming 
abroad at night to feed. 

The pupa is red-brown with a very sharp, spine-like extremity. It is concealed in the 
earth. * 

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It is often very 
abundant at various blossoms in the evening, and comes readily to sugar. It is an insect 
of almost universal distribution, occurring in Australia, China, India, Africa, Europe, and 
North and South America. \ 

Newman's British Moths, 319. | Meyrick, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 33. 



I.— THE CARADBININA. 31 

AGEOTIS ADMIRATIONIS, Gn. 
(Agrotis admirationis, Gn. (nee Meyrick), Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 38.) 
(Plate V., fig. 37.) 
This species has been taken at Christehureh. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are dull grey ; there are two minute 
black marks on the costa near the base, a slender interrupted transverse line at about one-third, the 
orbicular, rcniform, and claviform spots are very large and conspicuous, surrounded by a dark grey 
shading ; there is a series of black dots on the termen. The hind-wings are pale grey. The cilia of 
all the wings are also pale grey. 

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. I am assured by 
Mr. Fereday that the above-described insect is the true Agrotis admirationis of Guenee, 
described from an identical specimen which he forwarded to Guenee. The following 
species, which is regarded by Mr. Meyrick as Agrotis admirationis, Gn. (see Trans. N. Z. 
Inst. xix. 33), is therefore renamed as below. 

AGROTIS INNOMINATA, n. sp. 
(Agrotis admirationis, Meyr. (nee Guenee), Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 33.) 
(Plate V., fig. 39 <? •) 

Two specimens of this species have been taken at Wellington. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are pale pinkish-yellow ; there is a 
slender black longitudinal streak on the costa at the base, a broad black longitudinal streak at the base 
near the middle, and another a little beyond the base above the middle, containing the orbicular and 
rcniform stigmata, these arc sharply outlined in pinkish-yellow ; there are several rather indistinct black 
streaks between the veins, and a series of terminal black dots ; the cilia are dull pinkish-yellow. The 
hind-wings are dull white ; there is a series of brownish terminal dots, and the veins are marked in 
brown; the cilia are shining white. The head and thorax are pinkish-brown; the latter has two 
transverse black lines near the head, and two longitudinal black streaks on each side. The abdomen 
is dull white tipped with pale brown. 

One specimen of this insect is considerably tinged with very pale olive-green instead 
of pink, but it is otherwise identical. As the available material is so extremely limited, 
I am unable to say which is the typical form. 

The perfect insect appears in December. I am indebted to Messrs. J. H. Lewis and 
W. R. Morris for my specimens. 

AGROTIS SERICEA, Butl. 
(Chersotis sericea, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 490. C. inconspicua, ib. 545. Agrotis sericea, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xix. 33. A. inconspicua, ib. 34. Agrotis sericea, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 46.) 
(Plate V., fig. 38 ? .) 

This species has occurred in the South Island at Christehureh, Rakaia, and 
Ashburton. 

The expansion of the wings is about 11 inches. The fore-wings vary from very pale grey to dark 
blackish-grey ; there is an obscure transverse line near the base, and another at about one-fourth ; the 
orbicular is oval and dark centred, the claviform is elongate, often very obscure, the rcniform is broad 
dark centred, usually joined to the orbicular by a dark patch ; all the stigmata are outlined in black; 
beyond the reniform there is a rather jagged transverse line, and several faint wedge-shaped markings ; 
there is a series of minute elongate black marks on the termen ; the cilia are grey with three dark 
lines. The hind-wings are grey with several fine black marks on the termen ; the cilia are white. 

This species seems to be rather variable both in ground colour and in markings. 

The perfect insect appears in October, November, December and January. It is not 
a common species. 



32 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

AGKOTIS CEEOFACHOIDES, Gn. 
(Agrotis ceropachoides, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 39; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 34.) 
(Elate VI., fig. 1.) 
This species has occurred at Rakaia. 

The expansion of the wings is 1J inches. The fore-wings are bluish-grey , dotted and streaked with 
darker grey ; there are no distinct markings, except an obscure transverse shading near the termen, and 
a series of dull terminal spots; the costa is slightly concave. The hind-wings are grey, paler towards 
the base, with a dark line on the termen ; the cilia of all the wings are grey. 
The perfect insect appears in July, August and September. 
Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

Genus 11.— HELIOTHIS, Ochs. 

" Head rough-scaled ; eyes naked. Antennae in $ ciliated. Thorax without crest. Abdomen not 
crested. Tibiae spinose, anterior tibiae with horny 7 apical hook. 

"A rather small genus, but very generally distributed, though commoner in sub- 
tropical regions ; it is a development of Caradrina ; some of the species have a very wide 
natural range. The larva 3 feed especially on the blossoms of their food-plants." — 
(Meyrick.) 

This genus is represented in New Zealand by the world-wide Heliothis armigera. 

HELIOTHIS AEMIGEKA, Hb. 

(Heliothis armigera, Hb. H. conferta, Walk., Noct. 690. H. armigera, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 34.) 

(Plate V., fig. 40 <?, 41 ? .) 

This species has occurred plentifully at Waimarama (Hawkes Bay) and Wellington, 
in the North Island ; and at Nelson, Blenheim, Christchurch, Bakaia, and Ashburton in 
the South Island. In Wellington it is certainly not so common as formerly, and Mr. 
Meyrick observes that its abundance is declining in some other localities also. 

The expansion of the wings is from 1J to If inches. The fore-wings are pale yellowish-brown, 
sometimes tinged with red. There is an irregular band of dull grey or brown near the termen ; the 
rcniform is small and black; the orbicular minute, also black; the claviform is obsolete; there are 
several very indistinct traces of transverse lines towards the base of the wing. The hind-wings are 
dull yellow, with a very broad, blackish, terminal band. The head and thorax are yellowish-brown, 
and the abdomen is dull yellow. 

This insect varies a good deal in the ground colouring of the fore-wings, which 
ranges from dull yellow to brick-red, or even to dark yellowish-brown. The hind-wings 
are also much darker in some specimens than in others. 

The larva feeds on the seeds and flowers of various plants. It is extremely variable 
in its colouring. 

Some specimens are dull green, with a few obscure red spots on the sides of the anterior 
segments. Others are brownish-black, with many fine yellow stripes and dots, and the red spots 
confined to the three anterior segments. Others, again, have numerous olive-green, white, and pale 
green lines, with a reddish blotch on the side of nearly every segment. 

This caterpillar is often rather destructive in gardens. Amongst other things, it 
devours tomatoes and peas, the flowers and young fruit of pumpkins and vegetable 
marrows, the flowers and leaves of geraniums, veronicas, etc. It is full grown in the 
autumn. 

The pupa is concealed in the earth, the insect remaining in this condition until 
the following summer. 



I.— THE GABADBININA. 33 

The moth appears in January and February. It often flies by day, and may then 
be seen disporting itself amongst the flowers of the Scotch thistle. Its larva may also 
be found feeding on these flowers. 

This insect is practically cosmopolitan ; it has occurred in the following countries: 
Australia, Samoa, India, Ceylon, Madagascar, Africa, Europe, North and South 
America.* 

Genus 12.— COSMODES, Gu. 

" Eyes naked. Antenna' in male filiform, shortly ciliated. Thorax with strong transverse 
anterior and posterior crests. Abdomen strongly crested towards base. Hind-wings with veins 
6 and 7 short-stalked." — (Meyrick.) 

We have only one species in New Zealand. 

Cl ISMODES ELEGANS, Don. 
[Phalmna clcgans, Don. Ins. N. II. Cosmodcs elegans, Gn., Noct. vi. 290; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 35.) 

(Plate VI. , fig. 2.) 

This beautiful species has occurred at Napier and Ohau in the North Island. In 
the South Island it has been taken at Christchurch and Governor's Bay. 

The expansion of the wings is 1| inches. The fore-wings are rich orange-brown, with four 
large green spots margined with silver; there is a curved silvery mark near the apex. The hind-wings 
are pale yellow, shaded with orange-brown towards the terinen ; the cilia are pale orange-brown 
mixed with white. 

The perfect insect appears in March and April. 

Mr. Meyrick states that it occurs commonly in Eastern Australia.! 

Family 3— PLUSIAD^. 

The Plusiadce are characterized as follows : — 

" Ocelli usually distinct. Tongue well developed. Posterior tibia' with all spurs present. Fore- 
wings with veins 7 and 8 usually out of 9, 10 usually connected with '.). Hind-wings with veins 
'■'< and 4 connate or short-stalked, ."> well developed, and 7 connate or short-stalked or seldom closely 
approximated only, 8 shortly anastomosing with cell near base, thence evenly diverging." (See 
Plate II., ties. 14' to 18.) 

" This family is by no means very prominent in temperate regions, but within 
the tropics it assumes immense proportions, and is there, probably, the most abundant 
family of the Lepidoptera. There is much greater diversity of size, colour, and form 
than in the Garad.rinidee, and also more variation in structure, though this remains 
more uniform than usual. Imago with fore-wings usually relatively broader and less 
elongate than in the Caradrinidce, body often more slender. 

"Ovum spherical, more or less reticulated, often also ribbed. Larva with few 
hairs, sometimes with prologs on segments 7 and 8 absent or rudimentary. Pupa 
usually in a cocoon above the ground." — (Meyrick.) 

The family is represented in New Zealand by the following four genera : — 

Sub-family 1. — Hypenides 1. Hypenodes. 
I '2. Plusia. 

Sub-family 2. — Plusiades - 3. Dasypodia. 
1 4. Rhapsa. 

' Meyrick, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. :;."». I Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 35. 



34 NEW ZEALAND MACIiO-LEPIDOPTEllA. 

Sub-family l.—HYPENIDES. 
Vein 5 of hind-wings parallel to 4. 

Genus 1.— HYPENODES, Gn. 

Head loosely scaled, with small frontal tuft. Antennas in 3 ciliated. Palpi very long, 
porrected, second joint thickened with rough projecting scales, terminal rather short, cylindrical. 
Thorax with appressed scales. Abdomen with small crest near base. Tibia? smooth-scaled. Fore- 
wings with vein 7 separate, 9 and 10 out of 8. Hind-wings with vein 5 parallel to 4. 

"Although consisting of very few species, this genus is almost universally dis- 
tributed. Imago with fore-wings unusually elongate. Larva without prolegs on 
segments 7 and 8." — (Meyrick.) 

We have one species in New Zealand. 

HYPENODES EXSULAPJS, Meyr. 
(Hypenodes exsularis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 46.) 

" Male. — 16 mm. (about f inch). Head, antennae, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreous, 
brownish-tinged ; abdominal crest black. Palpi dark fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, posterior pair 
whitish-ochreous. Fore-wings elongate, posteriorly gradually dilated, costa slightly arched, termen 
obliquely rounded ; ochreous-brown, closely irrorated with rather dark fuscous ; a hlack mark beneath 
costa at base ; a cloudy hlackish longitudinal mark in disc beyond middle ; second line obscurely 
indicated, paler, anteriorly partly blackish-edged, from posterior extremity of discal mark to dorsum 
beyond middle ; an oblique wedge-shaped white spot from apex, touching second line ; a sub-terminal 
series of white dots ; a terminal row of black dots ; cilia fuscous, with a basal series of whitish- 
ochreous dots. Hind-wings pale whitish-grey ; a grey transverse discal spot ; a dark grey interrupted 
terminal line ; cilia grey-whitish. 

"Taranaki, in March ; one specimen. 

" In the British Museum is an unnamed specimen from China, which appears to be 
certainly the same species ; it, therefore, probably ranges through many of the South 
Pacific islands. From its small size and inconspicuous appearance it is doubtless often 
overlooked. ' ' — (Meyrick . ) 

Sub-family ±—PL USIADES. 

Vein 5 of hind-wings more or less approximated to 4. 

Genus '2.— PLLSIA, Ochs. 

" Head rough-scaled. Antenna 1 , in 3 very shortly ciliated. Palpi rather long, curved, 
ascending, second joint rough-scaled, terminal moderately long or short, more or less rough-sealed in 
front, somewhat pointed. Thorax with large central or posterior crest. Abdomen with one or more 
crests. Tibia? rough-scaled. Hind-wings with vein 5 more or less approximated to 4." (Plate II., 
figs. 14 and 15.) 

" A considerable genus, occurring throughout the world. Most of the imagos are 
handsome insects, often with metallic markings ; some of them fly actively in bright 
sunshine. Larva usually without prolegs on segments 7 and 8, segment Pi more or 
less prominent above. Pupa in a rather open cocoon." — (Meyrick.) 

This genus is represented in New Zealand by a single and very widely distributed 
species. 



I.— THE CARADRINTNA. 35 

PLUSIA CHALCITES, Esp. 

(Plusia erhsoma, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. 285; Butl., Voy. Ereb., pi. x. 1, 2. P. argentifera, Gn., Noct. vi. 352. 

P. eriosoma, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 3G.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 3 <? .) 

This insect is probably generally distributed in the North Island, and in the northern 
portions of the South Island. It has occurred very commonly at Taranaki, Napier, and 
Nelson, but in Wellington it is rather a scarce species. 

The expansion of the wings is about li inches. The fore-wings are dark grey with bronzy 
reflections ; there is a pale band on the termen, and several of the transverse lines are indicated by 
paler colouring, the two basal ones being often silvery ; the orbicular is partly outlined with golden- 
white, and the claviform is wholly filled in with the same colour. The hind-wings are yellowish-grey, 
darker towards the termen. 

Mr. Meyriek mentions a variety in which the characteristic golden-white discal 
spots on the fore-wings are absent. I have not yet had the good fortune to see this 
form, and think it must be a rare one. 

The larva has twelve legs ; it is much attenuated towards the head ; its colour is 
pale green, darker on the back ; there is a number of wavy white lines and dots on 
the larva, as well as a few isolated black dots and hairs. It feeds on geraniums, mint, 
bean, Scotch thistle, and many other garden plants and weeds. Its original food 
appears to have been the "potato plant" (Solatium aviculare) ; but now it only 
occurs on this shrub in uncultivated localities, where there is no European vegetation. 

The pupa is enclosed in a cocoon of white silk, generally situated between two dead 
leaves on or near the ground. 

The moth first appears about September, and continues abundant until the end of 
summer. In Nelson I have seen it in great profusion, hovering over various flowers 
in the evening, at which time it also occasionally endeavours to gain access to bee- 
hives. In the same locality I have met with the young larva' in the middle of winter, 
so that there is probably a continuous succession of broods all the year through in 
favourable situations. 

This insect is found in Australia, Pacific Islands, Africa, South Asia, South Europe, 
and occasionally in the South of England.* 

Genus 3.— DASYPODIA, Gn. 

"Eyes naked. Palpi with terminal joint very slender. Antenna- in male filiform, hardly 
pubescent. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Tarsi in male very much thickened, with dense 
scales (teste Guenee)." — (Meyriek.) 

We have one species. 

DASYPODIA SELENOPHORA, Gn. 

(Dasypodia selenophora, Gn., Noct. vii. 175; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 38.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 4.) 

This large and very handsome insect has occurred at Auckland, Napier, and 

Wellington in the North Island, and at Nelson, Richmond, and Christchurch, in the 

South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 3 inches. The fore-wings are very rich deep brown; there 
are two faint jagged transverse lines near the base, a straight shaded line at about one-third ; the 
reniform is very large, crescentic, steely blue, finely margined first with black, then with orange, and 
* Meyriek, 'Handbook of British Lepidoptera,' 159. 



36 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

then again with black ; the centre of the crescent is filled in with black ; beyond this spot there are three 
fine black wavy transverse lines emitting three very sharp teeth between the reniform and the dorsum ; 
there is a faint shaded line near the termen. The hind-wings are rich hrown, slightly paler than the 
fore-wings; there are three shaded, wavy, transverse lines. The termen of both wings is slightly 
scalloped with a minute bluish-white dot at each indentation ; the cilia are dark brown. 

The life-history is thus described by Mr. Colenso : — 

The larva when full grown is about 3| inches in length, elongate, slightly thicker in the middle, 
and with the skin smooth. It is ash-colour, speckled with minute points of black and red ; two 
minute carmine spots are situated close together on its back ; and, when in motion, two large 
triangular black splashes are also visible. The under side of the larva is dull white, with several dull 
olive spots corresponding to its ventral prolegs. Its head is small, and pale Indian yellow in colour ; 
its anal and ventral prolegs are large ; on being touched the caterpillar coils itself up very rapidly and 
closely. 

The specimen from which Mr. Colenso's description was taken, was found at rest 
on the trunk of a large acacia-tree, which is probably the food-plant of the larva. 

The pupa is enclosed in a cocoon formed of leaves fastened together with silk. The 
insect appears to remain in this condition for about two months. 

The pupa-case (after emergence) is nearly cylindrical, very obtuse at the head, and 
tapering regularly downwards from the end of the wing-cases, with the tail conical ; the 
abdominal segments are very strongly marked. Its colour is dark red, with a bluish or 
violet bloom, but smooth and shining on its prominent parts.* 

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March, but it is rather a scarce 
species. It is attracted by light, and thus occasionally enters houses, where specimens 
are generally captured. Mr. Meyrick states that this insect occurs commonly in Eastern 
Australia.! 

Genus 4.— RHAPSA. 

" Eyes naked. Palpi very long, obliquely ascending, loosely rough-scaled throughout, second 
joint with dense long projecting tuft above towards apex, terminal joint moderate. Antennae in male 
moderately bipectinated, apex simple. Thorax and abdomen not crested. Fore-wings in male 
beneath with large broad costal fold on anterior half." — (Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 10 and 17 neura- 
tion of $ Bhapsa scotosialis ; fig. 18 head of ditto.) 

We have two species. 

EHAPSA SCOTOSIALIS, Walk. 

(Bhapsa scotosialis, Walk., Suppl. 1150. Herminia lilacina, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, pi. xlii. 11. 

Bhapsa scotosialis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. six. 38.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 5 $, ? .) 

This remarkable species is extremely abundant and generally distributed throughout 
the country. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings have the costa considerably arched 
towards the apex, and the termen is bowed outwards in the middle; the colour is pale brown in the 
male and dark brown in the female; there are several obscure black marks near the base; the 
orbicular is very small, orange or pale grey outlined in black, the claviform is absent, the reniform 
is conspicuous, the outer edge is much indented, the inner edge is outlined with dull orange-nil, there 
is a black blotch between the orbicular and the reniform; beyond the reniform there is a curved 
transverse line enveloping a series of minute black dots, then a very conspicuous wavy transverse line 
shaded towards the base of the wing; there is a pale triangular area at the apex, and a series of small 
crescentic dark brown markings on the termen; the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are 
grcyish-ochreous ; there is a rather faint line across the middle, followed by a broad shade ; a series of 

* Trans. N. 'A. Inst. xi. 300. I lb. xix. 38. 



T.—THE CABADRININA. 37 

small crescentic marks is situated on the termen ; the cilia are dark greyish-ochreous. The antenna 
of the male are strongly bipectinated. The female is considerably darker, the markings are less distinct 
and numerous, and there is no black blotch between the orbicular and the reniform. 

Some male specimens are much paler in colour than others, hut with this exception there does 
not appear to he any important variation. 

The eggs are round, flattened above, bright green, becoming dull purplish about two days after 
being laid. 

The young larva when first emerged is about J inch in length ; the head is brown ; the body 
dull white, with a series of black tubercles round each segment, each tubercle emitting a tuft of 
bristles. The larva has sixteen legs, but the two anterior pairs of ventral claspers are not employed 
in walking, the caterpillar's modi' of progression, consequently, resembling that of a larva with twelve 
legs only. The food-plant is Piper excelsum. 

The perfect insect appears from September till April, and is very common amongst 
undergrowth in the forest. It is seldom found in the daytime, lint at night it is extremely 
abundant in densely wooded situations. It flies in a very stealthy manner, and may 
soon be recognised on the wing by this feature alone. When disturbed it always secretes 
itself amongst dead fern fronds or other vegetable refuse, where its sombre colour 
effectually conceals it. 

The costal fold on the under side of the fore-wing of the male contains a very large 
tuft of extremely long hairs. It probably emits a scent agreeable to the female. 

EHAPSA OCTIAS. Meyr. 

[Hyperaucha octias, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Loud., 18!I7, 383.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 7.) 

This interesting little species has recently occurred in some numbers in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wellington. I have no record at present of its capture in any other New 
Zealand locality. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings have the costa straight, and the 
termen with a large projection slightly above the middle ; the colour is pale brown ; there is a broad 
dark brown patch on the costa at the base, a jagged transverse line at about one-fourth, a very broad, 
oblique, blackish-brown, oblong patch >>n the costa at about one-third; beyond this patch is situated the 
reniform which is very large, indented towards the termen where it is outlined in dark brown ; there is 
a very fine jagged transverse line from beneath the reniform to the dorsum; a large irregular patch of 
dark brownish-black just before the apex, and an obscure transverse line ; there is a series of minute, 
dark brown, crescentic marks on the termen. The hind-wings are dull whitish-grey ; there is a faint 
blackish dot in the middle, a wavy line a little below the middle, and a terminal series of small dark 
marks. The antennas are filiform in both sexes. 

The perfect insect appears in October, November and December. It frequents dense 
forest ravines, and is generally disturbed from amongst dead leaves or old fern fronds. 
It is usually a very scarce species, but appears to be much commoner in some years than 
in others. According to Air. Meyrick, it is also found in Australia. 

This species is placed by Mr. Meyrick in the genus Bhapsa. The simple antenna' 
and absence of the broad costal fold in the males would appear, however, to remove it 
from that genus, as restricted by him in the 'Transactions' of the New Zealand Institute, 
xix. 38. In all other respects it appears to conform to the genus.* 

* Since this was written I find that Mr. Meyrick has created a new genus, 'Hyperaucha, for the reception of this 
insect. See 'Transactions of the Entomological Society of London,' 1897, 383. 



( 38 ) 



II. — THE NOTODONTINA. 

The Notodontina are characterized as follows : — 

" The maxillary palpi are obsolete. Fore-wings with vein lb usually furcate, but with lower 
fork often weak or tending to be obsolete, 5 rising not nearer to 4 than to 6, parallel, 7 and 8 out 
of 9. Hind- wings almost always with frenulum, lc absent. (Plate II., figs. 19 to 64, and Plate I., 
figs. 12 and 13.) 

" Imago with fore-wings more or less broad-triangular ; hind-wings broad-ovate." — (Meyrick.) 

Larva (in New Zealand) generally with 10 or 12 legs only (Plate III., figs. 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 
21, 22, and 24), rarely with 1G {Sphinx, PI. III., figs. 13 and 14). 

" Pupa with segments 9 to 11 free ; not protruded from cocoon in emergence." — (Meyrick.) 

This is a very extensive group of the Lepidoptera, and so far as it is represented 
in New Zealand is equivalent to that group formerly known as the Qeometrina, with the 
addition of the family Sphingidce. The insects here included comprise many of our 
most interesting, abundant, and beautiful species. Some of them are so extremely 
variable that it is often a matter of considerable difficulty to determine the most conve- 
nient points on which to base the specific distinctions ; although fortunately great 
advances have been made in this direction of late years owing to the increase in the 
number of workers, and the consequent accumulation of available material. In con- 
nection with this portion of the subject, special mention should be made of Mr. Meyrick's 
paper on the group, which appeared in the ' Transactions ' of the New Zealand 
Institute for 1883. This essay has been of the greatest value in dispelling the doubts 
which formerly existed respecting the limits of many of the most variable species. 

The Notodontina are represented in New Zealand by the six following families : — 

1. Hydiuomenid.e. 4. Orthostixid^i. 

2. STEKimnxE. 5. Selidosemid.e. 

3. Monocteniad.e. 6. Sphingid^;. 

Family 1.— HYDRIOMENID^. 

The Hydriomenidae are thus characterized : — 

"Tongue well developed. Fore-wings with vein 10 rising separate; anastomosing with 11 
and 9 (forming double areole), or rising out of 11 and anastomosing with 9 (forming simple areole). 
Hind-wings with vein 5 fully developed, parallel to 4, 6, and 7 almost always stalked or connate, 8 
anastomosing with upper margin of cell from near base to beyond middle, or sometimes approximated 
only and connected by a bar or shortly anastomosing beyond middle." (Plate II., figs. 19 to 43.) 

"A very large family distributed in equal plenty throughout all temperate regions, 
but becoming scarcer within the tropics. The structure is very uniform throughout, 
and the generic distinctions slight. Imago with body slender, fore-wings usually broad. 

" Ovum broad, oval, rather flattened with usually oval reticulations. Larva elongate, 
slender, with few hairs, without prolegs on segments 7 to !) ; often imitating live or 
dead twigs and shoots. Pupa usually subterranean."— (Meyrick.) 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 39 

This family is very extensively represented in New Zealand by the following fifteen 
genera : — 

1. Tatosoma. 5. Elvia. 9. Venusia. 13. Dasyukis. 

2. Pakadetis. 6. Hymuomena. 10. Asaphodes. 14. Notobbas. 

3. Chloeoclystis. 7. Euchceca. 11. Xanthoiuioe. 15. Bamana. 

4. Pheixogonus. 8. Asthena. 12. Lythiua. 

Genus POTATO SOMA, Butl. 

" Face smooth. Palpi long, straight, porrectod, shortly rough-scaled, terminal joint short. 
Antennas in male simple, stout, gradually dilated from base to near apex, apex attenuated. Abdomen 
in male very excessively elongate. Hind-wings in male deeply excised near dorsum, dorsal lobe folded 
into a long pocket, fringed with hairs. Fore-wings with vein 6 rising out of 9, 7 from or above angle 
of areole, 10 anastomosing moderately with 9, 11 anastomosing moderately with 10, 12 free. Hind- 
wings with veins 6 and 7 separate, 8 free, united with 7 before transverse vein by an oblique bar. 

" This singular genus is a remnant of a widely diffused, but now fragmentary group, 
to which belong also LobopJwra (Europe), Rhopalodes (South America), Sauris (Ceylon), 
and Remodes (Borneo.) In all, the hind-wings of the male are peculiarly modified, 
usually much diminished in size, and with the dorsum formed into a distinct lobe, the 
object of which is unknown. A similar structure is found only in one or two genera 
of Tortricina. RJwpalodes is the nearest genus to this, but vein 5 is said to be obsolete, 
and the lobe does not form a pocket ; in Sauris the areole is simple, and the antennae 
thickly scaled ; in Remodes the areole is also simple, the antennas flattened and scaled, 
and the dorsum is furnished with three superposed lobular folds, so that it represents 
the extreme of development in this direction." — (Meyrick.) 

It will be seen on reference to Plate IP, tigs. 22 and 23, which represent the structure 
of the hind-wings of the male and female of Tatosoma agrionata respectively, that in 
the male veins 1 and 2 are absent, having no doubt become absorbed during the formation 
of the characteristic sexual lobe ; vein 8 is connected with the margin of the cell by an 
oblique bar, this being probably due to an extension of the wing in the costal region, com- 
pensating for the loss in the dorsal region due to the above-mentioned lobe. In the hind- 
wings of the female the normal neuration of the family is almost preserved, the only peculiar 
feature consisting in the origin of veins 6 and 7 from a point on the margin of the cell. 

Of this remarkable genus we have three species, and I think it quite possible that 
others may reward the industry of future collectors. 

TATOSOMA LESTEVATA, Walk. 

(Gidaria lestevata, Walk. 1416. Sauris ranata, Peld. exxxi. 11. Tatosoma hstemta, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xvi. 67.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 25 3 ■) 

This beautiful species has occurred at Wainuiomata, near Wellington, in the North 

Island, and at Nelson and Christchurch, in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1£ inches. The fore-wings are bright-green ; there arc four wavy, 
black, transverse lines; the first near the base, the second a little before the middle, the third considerably 
beyond the middle, and the fourth near the termen ; the terminal line is very faint towards the tornus, 
and it emits three or four very sharp, longitudinal, black, tooth-like marks ; all the transverse lines are 
much stronger where they cross the principal veins. The hind-wings are very pale yellowish-green. 

The perfect insect appears in February. At present I believe the species is repre- 
sented by four specimens only— two in Mr. Fereday's collection and two in my own. 



40 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

TATOSOMA AGKIONATA, Walk. 

(Cidaria agrionata, Walk. 1417. Cidaria tipulata, ib. 1417. Cidaria inclinataria, ib. 1418. Cidaria 
transitaria, ib. 141'.). Sauris mistata, Peld. cxxxi. 12. Tatosoma transitu ria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. 
xvi. 68. Tatosoma agrionata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii. G4.) 

(Plate VI., fig. '26 $ , 27 2 .) 

This fine species has occurred commonly at Wellington in the North Island. It 
is generally distributed in the South Island, and has also been found at Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about li inches. The fore-wings are bright-green traversed by 
numerous black, wavy, transverse lines; these black lines arc grouped into four more or less distinct 
bands, the outermost of which is interrupted at each of the veins ; there is a conspicuous black dot in 
the middle of the wing, a number of small triangular black marks near the termen, and a series of 
minute black dots on the termen. The hind-wings are ochreous, tinged with green towards the 
termen. In the female the abdomen is much shorter, and the hind-wings are larger than in the male. 

The perfect insect appears from December till April. It frequents dense forests, 
and is generally found at rest on the trunks of trees. In these situations the pattern 
of the fore-wings is extremely protective, the whole insect bearing the closest possible 
resemblance to a patch of moss. This species may also be taken at sugar, and some- 
times at light, but I have found that it can be obtained most plentifully by a careful 
scrutiny of the tree-trunks in a favourable locality. As a rule I think that the males 
are considerably commoner than the females. I have noticed them in the proportion 
of about four to one. 

TATOSOMA TTMOIU, Meyr. 

(Tatosoma agrionata, Meyr. (nee Walker), Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 68. Tatosoma timora, Meyr., ib. xvii. 64.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 28 3 , '29 ? .) 

This rather sombre, though interesting insect, has occurred at Palmerston and 
Wellington in the North Island, and at Christchurch and Akaroa in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. All the wings are sparsely covered with scales. The 
fore-wings of the male are dull reddish-brown, with numerous <>l>senre transverse dusky stripes; there arc 
two rather conspicuous blackish blotches on the casta, a white dot in the middle of the wing, a wavy, 
pale, transverse line near the termen, and a series of black terminal dots ; the veins are dotted in black. 
The hind-wings are very small, dull grey, with the lobe large and conspicuous. The female is faintly 
tinged with green, the markings on the fore-wings are rather indistinct; the hind-wings are small, 
though much larger than those of the male. 

The perfect insect appears from November till May. It frequents densely wooded 
districts, but is not a common species. 

Genus '2.— PABADETIS, Meyr. 

" Palpi short, arched, roughly-scaled beneath. Antenna 1 bipectinated. Fore-wings with vein (> 
from below '■), 7 from below angle of areole, 10 very shortly anastomosing with ',), 11 out of 10 con- 
siderably before angle of areole, 12 free. Hind-wings with veins and 7 stalked, 8 separate, united 
to 7 before transverse vein by an oblique bar. 

"This singular genus is of quite uncertain affinity, and stands at present alone. 
The simple areole, and connecting bar of 7 and 8, can only have arisen by modifi- 
cation of the normal type of this family, to which it must lie referred. It is also the 
only New Zealand genus except Declaim in which the female has pectinated antenna' ; 
but this character recurs in a- few exotic genera not otherwise allied." — (Meyrick.) 

Plate 11., figs. 27 and 28 represent the neuration of the male of Paradetis porphyrias, 
vein '2 of the hind-wings being absent in that sex. In the female, which is the sex from 
which Mr. Meyrick characterized the genus, the vein is present as usual. Only one 
species is known. 



II.-— THE NOTODONTINA . 41 

PAEADETIS POEPHYEIAS, Meyr. 

(Parysatis porphyrias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 58. Parade tis porphyrias, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 36 <?.) 

This interesting little insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, 
Castle Hill, the Otira Gorge, and Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings is about | inch. The fore-wings of the male arc deep purplish- 
brown ; there is a wavy, reddish, transverse line at about one-third and another at about two- 
thirds ; between these two lines near the dorsum there are often four, more or less distinct, yellow- 
dots ; there is an obscure orange mark at the origin of the first line and a conspicuous mark at the 
origin of the second. The hind-wings are deep purplish-brown. The cilia of all the wings are white. 
The fore-wing lias the apex hooked and the termen deeply excavated above and below the middle. The 
female is very much paler; the lines are more distinct and the veins are marked in brown. 

The perfect insect appears in January. It frequents rather open spots in the 
forest, and Hies in a very busy manner close to the ground amongst the numerous 
ferns and other plants, which are always abundant in such situations. It is con- 
sequently very inconspicuous and sometimes difficult to capture. Thus, no doubt, it 
is often overlooked, and perhaps is much commoner than at present appears probable. 

Genus 3.— CHLOEOCLYSTIS, Hb. 

"Face with short cone of scales. Palpi rough-scaled. Antennae in male shortly ciliated. 
Abdomen crested. Fore-wings with areole simple, vein 11 running into or anastomosing with 12. 
Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell from near base to beyond middle." (Plate II., 
figs. 19 and 20.) 

" This genus is especially characteristic of New Zealand, and is also found in 
South Asia, a few stragglers occurring in Europe and elsewhere." — (Meyrick.) 

We have twelve species, several of which are very beautiful. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS PLINTHINA, Meyr. 

(Pasiphila plinthina, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 49.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 8.) 

This pretty species has occurred at Wellington. 

The expansion of the wings is about £ inch. All the wings are traversed by numerous obscure, 
wavy, reddish-yellow lines ; the fore-wings have a dark shading near the base, a very large white 
blotch in the middle, and a dark chocolate-brown patch near the apex. The hind-wings hare 
a large shaded white patch in the middle, a blackish dot near the base, and a series of brownish 
crescentic marks on the termen ; the cilia of all the wings are pale brown barred with brownish- 
black. The termen of the fore-wings is very oblique, of the hind-wings rather irregular. 

Many specimens of this insect are strongly tinged with green, and the shape and 
size of the white patches on the fore- and hind-wings are subject to slight variations. 

The perfect insect appears in November and December. It frequents brushwood, 
where it may be occasionally taken at rest on tree-trunks but more often dislodged 
from the foliage. It is not a very common species. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS BILINEOLATA, Walk. 
{Eupithecia bilineolata, Walk. 1246. E. muscosata, ib. 124(3. Scotosia humerata, ib. 1362. Eupithecia 
semialbata, ib. 1708. E. cidariaria, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. G2. Cidiaria aquosata, Feld., pi. exxxi. 33. 
Helastia charybdis, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 503. II. calida, ib. 504. Pasiphila muscosata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. 
Inst. 50. P. bilineolata, ib.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 9 type, fig. 10 variety.) 
This beautiful little species is common, and generally distributed throughout the 
country. 



42 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPTDOPTERA. 

The expansion of the wings is f inch. The fore-wings are bright green with numerous 
wavy darker lines. There is a jagged transverse black line near the base, two at about one- 
fourth, enclosing a rather paler space ; beyond this there are several rather irregular, fine black 
marks, and an obscure white patch below the apex ; the cilia are dull green. The hind-wings 
are grey slightly tinged with reddish ; the dorsum and termen are shaded with green, and there 
is a number of curved black lines on the dorsum ; the cilia are dull greenish-grey. The termen 
of the fore-wings is slightly bowed, and all the wings are finely scalloped and sharply outlined 
in black. 

A very distinct variety frequently occurs in which the entire ground colour is 
orange-yellow. This variety can be artificially produced by exposing a typical specimen 
to the fumes of bruised laurel leaves. Intermediate forms may also be found, but are 
much scarcer than either the typical form or the variety. 

The larva (according to Mr. Purdie *) is about J inch long ; colour brownish, surface 
very rugged ; body tapering somewhat towards the head. Two pairs of small dorsal 
tubercles about the middle, the posterior pair being larger ; oblique lateral dark 
markings faintly seen on dark ground colour; below lighter. Food-plants: Aristotelia, 
Leptospermum ericoides, Bubus (?), and MuhlenbecJcia (?). Found in December and 
January. 

The perfect insect appears from September till May, and is often very common. 
It rests on tree-trunks with outspread wings, in which position it so closely resembles 
a patch of moss that it is extremely difficult to detect, even when specially searched for. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS ANTAECTICA, n. sp. 
(Plate VI., fig. 20.) 

This species was discovered by Mr. Philpott at West Plains, near Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is § inch. The fore-wings are rather dull green ; there is a 
reddish-brown patch near the base, followed by two, slightly oblique, reddish bands ; the central 
band is very broad, green, traversed by numerous fine wavy lines ; there is a broad reddish band 
on the termen. The hind-wings are slaty-grey, tinged with pink towards the termen and dorsum. 
The cilia of all the wings are pink barred with black. 

Two other specimens kindly given to me by Mr. Philpott have the bands on the 
fore-wings more or less brown in place of red, but are otherwise identical. 

This insect is evidently very closely allied to G. bilineolata, but its larger size, 
longer wings, and barred cilia will, I think, distinguish it from that species. 

The perfect insect appears in November. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS AEISTIAS, Meyr. 
(Chloroclystis aristias, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 385.) 
(Plate VI., fig. 21 <?, 22 ? .) 
This beautiful insect was discovered on the Mount Arthur Tableland in January, 
1896, at an elevation of about 4,000 feet. 

The expansion of the wings is 1|- inches. All the wings arc very pale greenish-grey. The 
male has three distinct dark brownish bands near the base, an irregular broad suffused band 
near the middle, becoming obsolete before it reaches the dorsum, a dark patch at the apex, 
another patch on the termen below the apex and another near the tornus. The hind-wings are 
traversed by numerous, very fine, wavy blackish lines, becoming darker towards the dorsum. In 
the female there are three wavy reddish-brown bands on the costa of the fore-wings, becoming 
obsolete towards the dorsum, then a wavy yellowish line, followed by two rust-red patches. The 
hind-wings resemble those of the male. Both sexes have the veins dotted with black, and the 
cilia oi all the wings are grey barred with black. 

* N. Z. 'Journal of Science,' July, 1884, 



II. -THE NOTODONTINA. 43 

The perfect insect was found in a limestone valley at the foot of Mount Peel, 
whore it was fairly common. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS NEEEIS, Meyr. 
(Pasiphila nereis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 51.) 
(Plate VI., fig. 11 J.) 
This insect has occurred at Mount Arthur, Mount Hutt, and the Humboldt 
Kange, Lake Wakatipu, at elevations from 2,500 to 4,000 feet. 

The expansion of the wings is nearly an inch. All the wings arc dusky grey with numerous 
black and dull white, wavy transverse lines; there is often a somewhat paler area near the apex 
of the fore-wings, and the fcermen of the hind-wings is slightly scalloped ; the cilia are dull white 
barred with dark greyish-black. 

The perfect insect appears in January and February. It generally frequents cliffs 
on mountain sides, resting with outspread wings on the dark rocky surfaces. In 
these situations it is extremely difficult to detect, and the protective value of its 
colouring is thus at once demonstrated. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS DEYAS, Meyr. 

(Pasiphila dryas, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst, xxiii. 07.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 12 3 .) 

This species has occurred at Wellington. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull rosy-brown, trovers,,/ I,,/ 
numerous obscure blackish transverse lines, somewhat concentrated towards /he middle and forming 
an ill-defined central band; the termen is slightly shaded with blackish, and the veins are 
marked with dotted lines. The hind-wings are grey, tinged with rosy-brown ; there are numerous 
very faint blackish transverse lines and the veins are marked with blackish dots. The cilia of 
all the wings are dark grey. The termen of the hind-wings is rather irregular. 

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and is attracted by light. 
I once took a specimen in July, but this may have been due to an exceptionally 
mild winter. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS SPHEAGITIS, Meyr. 

(Pasiphila sphragitis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 51.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 13 <?, 14 2 .) 

This extremely variable insect has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, 
and at Christchurch in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is § inch, of the female | inch. The fore-wings 
arc pale ochreous ; there is a narrow darker area at the base followed by a narrow oblique pal: 
band; then a broad central band, formed of numerous oblique, wavy, brown, transverse lines, 
next, a rather narrow curved pale band, followed by several small irregular patches on the 
termen, sometimes forming a dark brown terminal band ; all the markings are much darker on 
the costa, and portions of the costa, termen, and dorsum are frequently tinged with green. 
The hind-wings are pale ochreous; there are numerous wavy, pale brown lines on the dorsum, 
becoming obsolete towards the costa. The termen of all the wings is edged with fine black 
crescents. The cilia are pale ochreous haired with dark brown. 

The perfect insect may be met with from September till February, but is most 
abundant in the early spring. It is extremely common in the Wellington Botanical 
Gardens, frequenting the forest gullies, where numerous specimens may be easily 
dislodged from amongst the dense undergrowth. This moth rests with expanded wings 
on the leaves and stems of shrubs, but is extremely difficult to find in such situations, 
the colouring of the insect causing it to closely resemble the droppings of birds. 



44 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS LICHENODES, Purd. 

(Pasipkila lichenodes, Purdie, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xix. 70.) 

(Plate VI., figs. 15 and 16, varieties.) 

This extremely interesting species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, 
and at Dunedin in the South Island ; it has also been found at Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about J inch. The fore-wings are dull green; there is a large 
pale brown area near the base, divided by fine black lines into three distinct patches ; the central 
portion of the wing is mottled with black, pale brown, and dull green ; there is a very broad, 
irregular band of chocolate-brown near the termen, outlined with black towards the base and with 
white towards the termen, the white line almost dividing the band into four or five patches. The 
hind-wings are dull greenish-brown ; there are several irregular black and white transverse lines 
and small patches of chocolate-brown, the markings being more distinct towards the dorsum. 
The cilia of all the wings are pale brown barred with dark brown. 

I have observed that in many specimens of this species the ground colour is entirely 
pale brown instead of green ; the markings, however, are not variable. 

The perfect insect appears from November till February. It frequents forests, 
resting with outspread wings on lichen-covered tree-trunks, where its wonderfully 
perfect protective colouring may be seen to great advantage. The remarkable brown 
patches on the wings have undoubtedly been acquired for this protective purpose, and Mr. 
Purdie's name is certainly a most appropriate one. It is not, I think, a common species. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS INDICATAEIA. 

(Eupithecia indicataria, Walk. 1708. Pasiphila indicataria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 52.) 
(Plate VI., fig. 17 S , 17a ? .) 

This rather dull-looking species has occurred at Napier and Wellington in the 
North Island, and at Nelson in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is § inch. The fore-wings of the male are dull greenish-grey ,• 
there is an oblique, black-edged, reddish, transverse band at about one-third, and another very 
irregular band near the termen ; between and beyond these bands there are numerous irregular, 
broken, reddish and blackish transverse lines ; there is a rust-red patch on the termen below the apex. 
The cilia are grey barred with brown. The hind-wings are dull grey w r ith several faint, jagged, 
transverse lines ; the termen is rather irregular. The female is much browner than the male, 
and the lines are more numerous and distinct, especially on the hind-wings. The antenna arc 
simple in both, sexes. 

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and is fairly common in wooded 
localities. It is sometimes attracted by light. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS INDUCTATA, Walk. 
(Coremia indiictata, Walk. 1322. Scotosia subitata, ib. 1362. Pasiphila inductata, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xx. 53.) 
" This is a distinct species ; but I have only seen the British Museum specimens, and am unable 
to say to which section it belongs, or to give a proper description. The termen of the fore-wings is 
more bent, and the hind-wings are narrower than in any other species; ground colour light reddish, 
with the margins of the median band formed by distinct black lines." — (Meyrick.) 
I am unacquainted with this insect. 

CHLOEOCLYSTIS MAC UL ATA, n. sp. 

(Plate VI., fig. 18.) 
This interesting species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. W. P. Cohen. 
The expansion of the wings is about I inch. All the wings arc creamy-white slightly tinged 
with green. The fore-wings have several irregular large black marks on the costa extending about 



1I.—THE NOTODONTINA. 45 

two-thirds towards the apex ; there is a curved transverse series of black dots at about two-thirds, 
and several obscure brown marks on the termen near the middle and at the tornus. The 
hind-wings have several irregular rows of conspicuous Unci; spots. The cilia are cream-coloured 
barred with black. Tbe apex of the fore-wing is very much rounded. 

The perfect insect appears in December, and is attracted by light. 

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Cohen. 

CHLOBOCLYSTIS EECTILINEATA, n. sp. 
Plate VI., fig. 22.) 

This species was discovered at Wellington by Mr. W. P. Cohen. 

The expansion of the wings is | inch. The fore-wings are pale grey ; there are several irregular 
black, transverse lines near the base, very broad mi the costa ; a broad, pale, central area with no 
distinct markings; t/im two very fine, almost straight, parallel, dark transverse lines alternating with 
two broader white lines, and followed by a very conspicuous black line, tins being again immediately 
followed by a fainter black line; beyond these lines the wing is darker, with a wavy transverse 
white line and a row of black terminal marks. The hind-wings are grey with several faint, 
wavy, transverse lines and a series of darker marks on the termen. The cilia of all the wings are 
grey. 

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Cohen. 

Genus 4.— PHBISSOGONUS, Butl. 

"Face' with short cone of scales or smooth. Palpi moderate or short, porrected, more or less 
rough-scaled. Antennae in male ciliated or naked. Posterior tibiae with all spurs present. Pore- 
wings in male with swelling or tuft or rough scales on costa, vein 5 sometimes distorted or absent; 
areole simple, 11 running into 12. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell from near base to 
beyond middle." — (Meyrick.) 

^Ye have one species in New Zealand. 

PHRISSOGOXFS DENOTATUS, Walk. 
(Scotosia denotata, Walk. 1361. Phibalapteryx parvulata, ib. 1721. Phrixogonus denotatiis, Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 53.) 
(Plate VI., fig. 19 J .) 

This dull-looking insect is common and generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is \ inch. The fore-ioings are very dark grey, with numerous 
obscure black and pale brown transverse lines; there are several black dots on the veins, and a 
white mark on the termen near the apex. The hind-wings are pale grey with numerous wavy 
black lines, especially near the dorsum. The antennm arc simple in both sexes. The cilia are dull 
pink barred with black. The female is slightly tinged with reddish-brown. The male has a peculiar 
dilation on the costa, beyond the middle, beneath which is a naked longitudinal mark occupying the 
sjyaee between reins 10 and 12, these veins being sliijlithj distorted in consequence. 

Tbe larva, which feeds on the blossoms of the wbarangi (Brachyglottis rejpanda), 
is pale green with a, series of elongate triangular brown markings down the back and 
an obscure series of brown marks on each side. It may be found during the latter 
end of October and beginning of November, but is extremely inconspicuous amongst 
its food-plant. The pupa is concealed in a light cocoon constructed of tbe remains 
of the blossoms. 

Tbe perfect insect appears from October till February. It frequents dense under- 
growth in the forest, and is generally found resting with extended wings on tbe 
dark-coloured stems of the kawakawa (Piper excelsum), where it is practically invisible. 
In this situation its colouring is evidently specially adapted for protective purposes. 



46 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

Genus 5.— ELVIA, Walk. 

" Face smooth. Palpi rather long, straight, porrected, densely rough-scaled above and beneath, 
terminal joint short. Antennae in male stout, flattened, bipectinated (2.}). Thorax somewhat crested. 
Fore-wings with vein 6 from a point with 9, 7 from angle of areole, 10 anastomosing moderately with 
9, 11 out of 10, running shortly into 12. Hind-wings with veins 6 and 7 stalked, 8 anastomosing with 
7 from near base to near transverse vein." — (Me*yrick.) 

We have one species. 

ELVIA GLAUCATA, Walk. 

(Elvia glaueata, Walk. 1431 ; Feld. exxxii. 25. Elvia donovani, Fold, exxxii. 5. Elvia glaucata, Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 65.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 23 and 24 varieties.) 

This very pretty insect is generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about an inch. 

The fore-wings vary from pale green to dark .steely blue, rarely pale reddish-brown ; there is an 
almost straight, black transverse line near the base; a broad curved line before the middle, shaded 
towards the termen; then a straight line, breaking up into dots towards the dorsum, followed by a 
conspicuous cream-coloured blotch near the casta ; this again is followed by a fine jagged cream-coloured 
line ; there is a terminal series of black dots. The hind-wings are cream-coloured, tinged with steely 
blue or green towards the termen ; there are a few obscure transverse lines and a short series of dots 
from the dorsum. The apex of the fore-wing is very blunt, and the termen is slightly hollowed out 
towards the tornus ; the termen of the hind-wings is deeply scalloped. 

This species is extremely variable. In addition to the variations above indicated, 
the markings of many specimens differ considerably in intensity, and there are fre- 
quently several large cream-coloured blotches towards the base or middle of the fore- 
wings. 

The perfect insect appears from September till March, but is not a common species. 
It frequents forest districts, and may sometimes be found at rest on tree-trunks, where the 
beautiful colouring of its fore-wings closely imitates that of certain lichens, and renders its 
detection in such situations extremely difficult. Unlike the insects included in the two 
preceding genera, this species closes its wings when at rest, the anterior pair alone being 
visible. These wings are not held flat, but are curiously folded longitudinally, and the 
end of the abdomen is also curled upwards. By slightly raising the insect above the level 
of the surrounding surface, this peculiar attitude considerably increases its resemblance to 
a lichen growing on the stem or branch of a tree. It will also be observed that in this 
species, which when at rest exposes only its fore-wings, these alone are protectively 
coloured ; whilst in the genera, Chloroclystis and Phrissogonus, where both pairs of wings 
are displayed, both pairs are protectively coloured. 

Genus 6.— HYDRIOMENA, Hb. 

"Face with somewhat projecting or loose scales, or with conical tuft. Palpi rough-scaled. 
Antennae in male ciliated, rarely dentate or naked. Abdomen not crested, or with crests on two basal 
segments only. Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with 8 anastomosing with cell from 
near base to beyond middle. (See Plate II., fig. 32 head, figs. 33 and 34 neuration of Hydriomena 
dcltoidata.) 

"A very large genus, principally characteristic of temperate regions in both 
hemispheres." — (Meyrick.) 

There arc twelve New Zealand species. 



IT.— THE NOTODONTIXA. 47 

HYDKIOMENA GOBIATA, Feld. 

(Cidaria gobiata, Peld. cxxxi. 2. Phibalapteryx simulant, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 50G. Phibalapteryx 
undulifera, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 50G. Phibalapteryx anguligera, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 507. Phibalapteryx 
rivularis, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 507. Scotosia gobiata, Meyr., Trans. N. X. Inst. xvi. 70. Cephalissa gobiata, 
il). xvni. 184.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 43 $ , 44 ? .) 

This insect has occurred plentifully at Wanganui and Wellington in the North 
Island, and is generally distributed throughout the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is from 1 to 1^ inches. All the wings vary from pale ochreous to 
rather dull yellowish brown, sometimes very slightly tinged with green. Then' is usually a large 
number of fine, slightly waved, oblique lines arranged on both pairs of wi)igs, very like the markings 
in \'euusia verriculata (see page 53), both insects evidently having acquired this style of colouring for 
similar protective purposes. In many specimens the whole of the anterior portion of the fore-wings, 
a small area at the base of the hind-wings, and a band near the termen are much paler in colour than 
the rest. There is usually a very oblique elongate pale area near the apex, and an irregular dark spot 
considerably below the apex. The outline of all the wings is more or less distinctly scalloped. 

The larva (according to Mr. Purdie *) is about 1 inch in length, greyish-brown, with 
a rough prominent dorsal tubercle about the ninth segment. There are sometimes other 
smaller tubercles. It feeds on various species of Coprosoma in January, March, and May. 

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and generally frequents rather 
open country where Manuka and Cabbage Tree Palms are abundant. 

EYDEIOMBNA PEIONOTA, Meyr. 
(Arsinoe prionota, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 73. Anachloris prionota, Meyr., il). xviii. 184.) 
(Plate VI., fig. 47.) 
This species has been taken in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Castle Hill and 
Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is rather under li inches. The fore-wings are dull yellowish-brown, 
with many obscure, wavy, transverse, brown lines, which tend to form two ill-defined bands, one rather 
narrow near the base and the other much broader near the middle of the wing. The hind-wings are 
eery pale yellowish-brown ; there are a few obscure dark lines near the dorsum. The reins ore 
distinctly dotted in black, and the outline of all the icings is deeply scalloped. 
The perfect insect appears in January, but is not common. 

HYDKIOMENA DELTOIDATA, Walk. 

[Coremia deltoidata, Walk. 1321. Cidaria inclarata. Walk. 1411. 
Cidaria congressata, Walk. 1412. Cidaria conversata, Walk. 1413. 
Cidaria bisignata, Walk. 1415. Cidaria aggregata, Walk. 1415. Cidaria 
plagifurcata, Walk. 141G. Coremia pastinaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 64. 
Cidaria rrumoliata, Peld. exxxii. 8. Cidaria perversata, Feld. exxxii. 14, 24. 
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 70. Cephalissa deltoidata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst, xviii. 184.) 
(Plate VII., figs. 1 to 9 varieties.) 

This pretty insect is extremely abundant throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings varies from 1| to If inches. The fore-wings vary from brownish- 
black to dull orange-brown ; there is a small darker area near the base, then two pale whitish wavy 
transverse lines, then a broad darker central band, often containing within it a still darker central 
band, hounded by two wavy black transverse lines; beyond the central band there are nearly always 
two or three pale brown or whitish, wavy, transverse lines, then an interrupted line just before the 
termen, and a short oblique whitish line below the apex; there is a black dot a little above the centre 
of the wing, and a white dot on the termen near the middle. The hind-wings are yellowish-brown, 
with several wavy, transverse lines near the dorsum ; there is a series of fine crescentic black lines on 
the termen of both fore- and hind-wings. 

,\. X. • Journal of Science," July, 1SS4. 



( 'ida 




perdu 


eta 


ta, Walk. 


1412. 


Cidari 


a 


descrii 


otai 


'.a, Walk. 


1414. 


congrt 


'■ga- 


ta, W. 


ilk. 


1415. C 


'ida rid 


Cidan 


la 


inopia 


ta, 


Feld. exxxii. 3. 


Scott 


>sii 


I delto, 


dat 


a, Meyr., 


Trans. 



48 NEW ZEALAND MACPO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

This species is extremely variable, but may generally be recognised by a careful 
scrutiny of the above-named characters. One very striking variety occasionally met with 
has the central band of the fore-wing completely divided in the middle, which thus forms 
two dark patches, one on the costa, and one on the dorsum. (See Plate VII., figs. 7 and 
8.) A further development of this variety, of which I have only seen one example, taken 
by Mr. Hawthorne at Springfield, Canterbury, and now in his collection, has only the 
costal patch present, the whole of the lower portions of the band being completely 
obliterated.* (See Plate VII., fig. 9.) The minor varieties are too numerous to specify. 

The larva feeds on grasses. When full-grown its length is about 1 inch. The 
colour is dark brown, with the skin very much wrinkled. It is sluggish in its habits, and 
lives through the winter, becoming full-grown about the end of September. During 
severe weather it generally seeks refuge from the elements amongst the stalks and roots of 
the rank herbage often surrounding stones or fallen logs. 

The pupa is concealed in the earth. 

The perfect insect appears early in January, and continues in the utmost profusion 
until the middle or end of March. It may often be seen resting with the wings folded 
backwards and forming together a triangle, whence the moth has probably derived its 
name of deltoidata. In the neighbourhood of Wellington I have observed that this insect 
has very much decreased in numbers during the last ten or fifteen years. 

HYDEIOMENA HEMIZONA, Meyr. 
(Hydriomena hemizona, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 385.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 10.) 
This insect has occurred at Terawhiti in the North Island, and at Mount Arthur in 
the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are blackish-brown, darker 
towards the apex and termen ; there is an obscure rust-red wavy baud near the base, and another at 
three-fourths, considerably bowed towards the termen at the middle; there are also numerous wavy 
darker lines. The hind-wings are dull grey, and the termen is slightly scalloped. 

This species may be distinguished from any of the varieties of H. deltoidata by its 
narrower wings, and the absence of any distinct central band on the fore-wings. 
The perfect insect appears in January. It is a scarce species. 

HYDEIOMENA SUEOCHEAEIA, Dbld. 

(Aspilates (?) suboeh ratio, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 285. Camptogramma subochraria, Butl., Cat., pi. iii. 1G. 
Camptogramma strangulate, Gn. x. 423. Camptogramma fuscinata, Gn., E. M. M. v. 92. Arsinoe subochraria, 
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 73. Anachloris subochraria, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.) 
(Plate VI., figs. 45 and 46 varieties.) 

This species is fairly common and generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1\ inches. The fore-wings are bright ochreous-yellow ; there 
s a brown dot a little above the middle, and a dark brown transverse band at about three-fourths ; 
the termen is shaded with dark brown. The hind-wings are ochreous, with an obscure central trans- 
verse line. 

A variety (Hydriomena fuscinata, Gn.) often occurs in which the whole of the wings are more or 
less tinged with purplish-brown (Plate VI., fig. 46). 

The perfect insect appears from November till April. It chiefly frequents tussock 
country and swampy situations. In the Wellington district it is extremely abundant in 

A econd specimen of this variety has since occurred in the neighbourhood of Nelson. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 49 

the clearings at the foot of the Tararua Range. According to Mr. Meyrick the typical 
form is common in Tasmania and Victoria. 

HYDRIOMENA TEIPHRAGMA, Meyr. 
(Cidaria triphragma, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 74.) 

"Male. — 26-27 mm. (about 1 inch). Fore-wings moderate, termen strongly sinuate; pale 
dull greyish-purple; a very small darker basal patch, outer edge strongly convex, margined by a dark 
fuscous fascia, posteriorly whitish-edged ; a dark fuscous fascia before one-third, irregularly outwards- 
curved, posteriorly suffused, anteriorly sharply defined and whitish-edged; a minute blackish discal 
dot; a dark fuscous fascia beyond middle, forming a strong angle in middle, upper and lower halves 
both inwards-curved, anteriorly suffused, posteriorly sharply defined and whitish-edged. Hind-wings 
moderate, termen somewhat irregular, projecting in middle ; wbitish-ochreous mixed with pale 
purplish ; an angulated darker band before middle. 

" A very distinct species, probably not variable. 

" Blenheim ; two specimens received by Mr. Fereday from Mr. Skellon." — (Meyrick). 

T am unacquainted with this species, which Mr. Fereday stated he was unable to 
identify. I have therefore inserted Mr. Meyriek's description without alteration. 

HYDRIOMENA RIXATA, Feld. 
Cidaria rixata, Feld. cxxxii. 1 ; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 75. Coremia squalida, Butl., Cist. 

Ent. ii. 505.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 11.) 
This pretty insect is very common, and generally distributed throughout the 
country. 

The expansion of the w T ings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings have a dull green patch near the 
base, with numerous dull brown and dull white wavy transverse lines ; there is a very broad blackish- 
brown central band paler in the middle, but almost black at the edges; this band has a large rounded 
projection on its outer edge near the middle, and below this projection it is deeply indented ; the 
remainder of the wing is dull yellowish-green, with several brown and white transverse lines; one of 
the white lines is more conspicuous than the rest and very wavy ; there is a shaded oblique black 
mark from the apex. The hind-wings are very pale yellowish-brown ; there are a few obscure 
brownish transverse lines near the dorsum, and a faint series of crescentic marks near the termen. 

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents the over- 
hanging banks of streams in densely wooded ravines, where it often occurs in the 
utmost profusion. 

HYDRIOMENA PURPURIFERA, Fereday. 
(Cidaria purpurifera, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 119 ; Meyr., ib. 75.) 
(Plate VIE, fig. 12.) 
This extremely pretty insect has been taken in the South Island at Mount Arthur, 
Mount Hutt, Castle Hill, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are rather bright green ; there is 
a darker area near the base, a very broad purplish-brown central baud, with a large square projection 
on the middle of its outer edge ; above this projection there is a very conspicuous white mark, bordering 
the central band ; the remainder of the wing is green ; there is a wavy white line near the termen, and 
an oblique bluish-black mark near the apex. The hind-wings are pale brownish-yellow. 

This species is closely allied to Hydrio?nena rixata, but easily distinguished by its 
brighter green colouring, purplish central band with square projection, and broad white 
marking beyond the central band. 

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents forest at 
elevations of from 1,000 to 3,000 feet. It is found in drier situations than the pre- 

7 



50 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

ceding species, and is not confined to forest streams. It is common in certain localities, 
but is not nearly so generally distributed as Hydriomena rixata. 

HYDRIOMENA SIMILATA, Walk. 

(Cidaria similata, Walk. 1413. Gidaria timarata, Feld. cxxxii. 19. Gidaria similata, Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 76.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 14.) 

This beautiful species has occurred at Napier and Wellington in the North Island, 
and at Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, and Invercargill in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1\ inches. The fore-wings are dark brown, with the reins and 
margins broadly shaded with bright green ; there are numerous irregular wavy blackish streaks forming 
three ill-defined darker transverse bands; the first at the hase ; the second from one-fourth to about 
two-thirds, partially divided into two from the costa downwards ; and the third near the termen 
outwardly edged with white. The termen itself is bordered first with green, and then with a series 
of fine black marks ; the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are very pale reddish-brown, darker 
towards the dorsum, with numerous pale brown wavy transverse lines. There is a series of black 
crescentic marks on the termen, and the cilia are pale reddish-brown. 

This species is rather variable. The spaces between the darker bands on the fore-wings are 
usually green, but in some specimens this is partially or wholly replaced by pale yellowish-brown. 
The dark bands also vary considerably in width and distinctness, and in many specimens the central 
band is entirely divided by a conspicuous pale brown or green transverse space. 

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie, is about 1 inch long, cylindrical. Back a dull deep green ; 
lateral stripe reddish-white, edged below with a darker colour ; ventral side lighter green, with four 
parallel white or yellow lines close together, extending from the forelegs to the prolegs. Outer side 
of prolegs white. There are traces of a median dorsal stripe of brownish-red on the anal segments. 
Beaten from Coprosma. Found in January. Mr. Purdie states that he is not quite certain as to the 
identification of the species, as the median belt of the fore-wings is much more distinctly defined, and 
the colour is a duller green than is usual in H. similata. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It is generally found 
resting on moss-covered tree-trunks, where its colouring affords it a most efficient 
protection from enemies. 

HYDRIOMENA CALLICHLOEA, But]. 
(Cidaria callicJUora, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 509; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 7G.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 13.) 
This beautiful insect has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at 
Christchurch and Invercargill in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are bright green, with three very 
distinct wavy black transverse lines ; the first near the base, the second a little before the middle, and 
the third considerably beyond the middle ; between these there is a number of fainter fine wavy lines. 
The hind-wings are whitish with several very faint wavy transverse lines ; the cilia of all the wings 
are dull yellowish-brown. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. Described and 
figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

HYDRIOMENA ARIDA, Butl. 

(Melanthia arida, Bull., Gist. Ent. ii. 505. Cidaria chaotica, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 70. 

Cidaria arida, Mcyi'., ib. xvii. 64.) 

Plate VII.", fig. 15.) 

This species has occurred in the South Island at Akaroa, Mount Hutt, Arthur's 

Pass, and Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull grey; there is a fine yellowish 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 51 

transverse line near the base, and a very broad central hand with a prominent projection somewhat 
below the middle, almost touching the termen ; there is a brown dot above the middle of the wing and 
numerous fine brown wavy lines in the central band ; the veins are marked in white near the termen. 
The hind-wings are pale ochreous, with a few very faint transverse marks near the dorsum. The 
termen of the fore-wings is slightly bowed in the middle. 

The perfect insect appears in January and February, and frequents forest, some- 
times being found as high as 2,600 feet above the sea-level. Described and figured 
from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

HYDKIOMENA SIEIA, Meyr. 
(Cephalissa siria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 93.) 
(Plate VI., fig. 48.) 
This odd little species was discovered by Professor Hutton at Dunedin. 
The expansion of the wings is jj inch. The fore-wings are rich brown with two transverse hands 
of darker brown ; the first near the base, rather narrow; the second near the middle, considerably 
broader, especially on the costa. The hind-wings are bright orange. The termen of the fore-wings 
is slightly excavated below the apex, and considerably bowed a little below the middle. 
Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

Genus 7.— EUCHCECA, Hb. 

" Pace smooth, fiat. Antenna' in 3 shortly ciliated. Palpi short, slender, loosely scaled, 
Fore-wings with areole simple. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle. 

"A small genus containing a, few species distributed throughout the northern 
hemisphere and one Australian." — (Meyrick.) 

We have one species. 

EUCHCECA BUBEOPUNCTAEIA, Dbld. 

(Ptychopoda rubropunctaria, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. li. 287. Asthena visata, Gn. ix. 438. Asthena, 
Gn., E. M. M. v. 12. Asthena pulchraria, Butl., Cat. pi. iii. 18. Hippolyte rubropunctaria, Meyr., Trans. 
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60. Epicyme rubropunctaria, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 35.) 

This little species is common and generally distributed throughout both the North 
and South Islands, and has also occurred at Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about § inch. AH the wings are pah- ochreous, with numerous 
obscure reddish transverse lines. On the fore-wings there are four transverse series of black dots ; the 
first near the base, the second a little before the middle, the third a little beyond the middle, and the 
fourth on the termen ; between the second and third series of dots there is very frequently an elongate 
blackish patch, especially towards the dorsum. The hind-wings have three series of black dots; the 
first near the base, the second near the middle, and the third on the termen. The termen of both 
fore- and hind-wings slightly projects near the middle. 

This species varies considerably in the extent of the blackish marking near the 
middle of the fore-wings, as well as in the colour and intensity of the reddish transverse 
lines. 

The larva is thus described by Mr. Fereday : * "The caterpillar has ten less, is cylindrical, rather 
stout, with the segmental divisions incised ; its colour is pale dull green, sometimes suffused with 
pink, brown, purple, or dark green; the dorsal line is purplish-brown, suffused, the central line 
whitish; the spiracular line is whitish, broadly margined with purplish-brown; the segmental 
divisions are pale yellowish-brown." 

The food is Haloragis alata, a common herbaceous plant growing in swampy 
situations. The pupa is enclosed in a slight earth-covered cocoon. 

* Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60. 



52 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

The perfect insect appears from September till March, and is sometimes common. 
It is generally found in wooded districts, but prefers rather open situations in the 
vicinity of streams, where its food-plant may often be seen. According to Mr. 
Meyrick,* this insect is common in New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, and 
the Australian and New Zealand specimens are similar in appearance. 

Genus 8.— ASTHENA. 

"Face smooth, flat. Antennae in 3 shortly ciliated. Palpi short, slender, loosely scaled. 
Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle. 
(Plate II., figs. 30 and 31.) 

"A genus of a few widely scattered species most numerous in the Australian 
llegion." — (Meyrick.) 

We have two species. 

ASTHENA PULCHEAEIA, Dbld. 

(Acidalia pulchraria, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. '286. Ghlorochroma plurilineata, Walk. 563, 676. Asthena 
ondinata, Gn. ix. 438, pi. xix. 4 ; ButL, Cat. pi. iii. 20. Gidaria ondinata, Feld. cxxviii. 17. Asthena 
pulchraria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 69.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 37 3 , 38 ? .) 

This beautiful little insect has occurred at many localities throughout both the 
North and South Islands. It is probably a common species in most wooded districts. 

The expansion of the wings is almost an inch. All the wings arc very pule greenish-white with 
numerous faint green, wavy, transverse lines. The fore-wings have a more or less distinct brown 
band on the costal edge, and a conspicuous greenish central dot. The hind-wings often have a slight 
projection on the termen near the middle. 

The perfect insect appears from October till May, and frequents dense forest under- 
growth. It is chiefly attached to the Kawakawa {Piper excelsum), and may often be 
found resting with outspread wings on the under-surfaces of the leaves of this plant, 
where it is very inconspicuous. There are probably two or more broods during the 
summer. 

On the 11th of May, 189'2, I observed large numbers of this species flying over the 
Manuka bushes in the Wellington Botanical Gardens in brilliant moonlight. The night 
was very cold, but notwithstanding this the moths were most numerous and active. 
The appearance of this insect under such unusual conditions may have been quite 
accidental, as I have never seen a recurrence ; but one is often somewhat unobservant 
in the winter, hence the record of this observation may be of use in directing the 
attention of others to the subject. 

According to Mr. Meyrick this species is also found in Tasmania, and South-east 
Australia. 

ASTHENA SCHISTAKIA, Walk. 

[Acidalia schistaria, Walk. 782. Asthena subpurpureata, Walk. 1588. Acidalia tuhuata, Feld. cxxviii. 5. 

Asthena schistaria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 69.) 

(Plate VI., figs. 30, 40 3 , 41, 42 ? varieties.; 

This pretty species is common, and generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is nearly an inch. All the wings envy from very pule brown to 
rather dull purplish-brown ; there are numerous jagged, darker, transverse lines forming several more 
or less distinct bun, Is. The first of these bands extends from the base to about one-eighth; the 
second, composed of only two or three lines, is situated at about one-third; the third extends from 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 53 

three-fourths to about five-eighths ; there are in addition, numerous very fine, wavy lines near the 
tenuen. The spaces between these bands are paler, and in some specimens the bands are very 
conspicuous, whilst in others they arc hardly perceptible. One specimen in my collection (Plate 
VI., fig. 39) has a very broad chocolate-brown band across the middle of both pairs of wings, 
the remaining portions being unusually pale in colour. There is always a dark brown dot in the 
centre of each wing, and a series of very fine dots on the termen. 

The larva, which feeds on Manuka (Leptospermum), is very ornamental. Its general colour is 
light green, with black dorsal and lateral stripes, and a series of diagonal markings bordered with 
crimson ; the legs and prolegs are also crimson, and the segments are divided by brilliant yellow 
rings, a white line extending down each side of the larva. 

This caterpillar is difficult to find, as it remains closely concealed amongst the 
dense Manuka foliage, from which it can be dislodged only by vigorous and continued 
beating. The larva' allow themselves to fall a short distance, hanging suspended by a, 
silken thread, which they rapidly ascend when the danger is past. 

The pupa is enclosed in a slight cocoon about one inch below the surface of the 
earth. 

The perfect insect appears from October till April. It is very common in most 
situations where its food-plant is found and, owing to its pale colour, is readily seen 
when flying in the evening twilight. Specimens may also be taken in the daytime 
resting with outspread wings on the trunks of trees and on fences, where they are 
much more easily detected than many other species. 

Mr. Meyrick thinks that this insect will also be found in Australia. 

Genus 9.— VENUSIA, Curt. 

"Face smooth. Antenna' in $ bi-pectinated, apex simple. Palpi loosely scaled. Fore-wings 
with areole simple. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle." — (Meyrick.) 
(Plate II., fig. 13, head of 1'. verriculata ; figs. 25 and '2(>, neuration of V. undosata.) 

We have three species represented in New Zealand. 

VENUSIA VEEEICULATA, Feld. 

(Cidaria verriculata, Feld. cxxxi. 30. Panopma verriculata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. G2. 

Pancyina verriculata, ib. xviii. 181.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 30 3 , 31 ? .) 

This remarkable species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and in 
tlic South Island at Christchurch, Ashburton, Dunedin and West Plains. 

The expansion ot the wings is about 11 inches. All the wings are pale yellowish-brown, with main/ 
straight oblique parallel dull brown lines ; an the fore-wings there are three lines broader and more 
isolated than the rest, running from the apex to the dorsum ; on the hind-wings the lines near the 
middle are rather thicker than the others, and have a broad space on each side of them ; (/// the lines 
are clearly marked on the abdomen, so that each line appears to be continuous from one side of the moth 
to the other. 

The perfect insect appears from October till May, and frequents the Cabbage Tree 
Palm (Gordyline), on which its larva probably feeds. According to Mr. Fereday the moth 
always rests on the dead leaves of the plant, keeping its wings in such a position that the 
lines are continuous with the parallel veins of the dead leaf, which they precisely resemble 
in appearance. We have, I think, in this species a most instructive instance of special 
adaptation to surrounding conditions ; and the action of natural selection, in preserving 
favourable variations of colour and habit, appears to be here unmistakably indicated. Had 
our investigations been confined to the examination of cabinet specimens only, we might 



54 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

have long remained in the dark as to the explanation of such an unusual type of wing- 
marking. 

VENUSIA XANTHASPIS, Meyr. 

(Hermionc xanthaspis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 61. Aulopola xanthaspis, Meyr., Lb. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 32 3 .) 

This handsome insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur and at 
Lake Guyon. 

The expansion of the wings is a little over 1 inch. The fore-wings are bright yellow ; there is a 
broad pale reddish-brown bond on thecosta ; a conspicuous oval dark brown spot above the middle, often 
touching the costal band ; a double series of minute, brown dots near the termen. The hind-wings 
are pale yellow, with a double series of minute brown dots parallel to the termen. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. It is apparently a rare 
species. Mr. Fereday has six specimens taken at Lake Guyon, and I have two specimens 
captured on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at an elevation of about 3,500 feet. These 
comprise, I believe, all the specimens at present taken. 

VENUSIA UNDOSATA, Feld. 

(Gidaria imdosata, Feld. exxviii. 2. Epiphryne undosata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst, xvi. GO.) 

(Plate VI., fig. 33 $ , 34 ? .) 

This neatly marked little insect has occurred at Napier and Palmerston in the North 
Island ; and at Nelson, Mount Hutt, Christchurch, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu in the 
South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is hardly an inch. All the wings arc pule yellow with a variable 
number of fine jaye/ed reddish-brown transverse lines, which are usually most distinct towards the termen. 
The fore-wings have a broad band of reddish-brown along the costal edge ; a blackish dot above the 
middle just touching the costal band, and a small brown mark near the apex. The hind-wings have 
a minute black dot a little above the middle. 

This species is rather variable : in some specimens the transverse lines are much 
broader, forming bands of reddish-brown ; in others the whole of the wings are dull 
reddish-brown, except a small yellow area near the base; whilst others are entire!// dull 
greyish-brown with the transverse lines very faint, intermediate varieties between all these 
forms also occurring. 

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie,° is about I inch lung, feeding on the Ribbonwood 
(Plagianthus betulinus). The ground colour is green, with the dorsal and lateral stripes 
white. The dorsal stripe is interlined with short black dashes, and there is a dark blotch 
about the ninth segment. The dorsal and lateral stripes may be margined with purplish- 
red. The under side is green. The larva- were found in April. 

The perfect insect appears from November till February, and frequents forest. 
According to my experience it is rather a local species, although plentiful where found. 
Mr. Meyrick states that it is "very common in bush, from August to February, and in 

May." f 

Genus 10.— ASAPHODFS, Meyr. 

" Face with a tuft or hardly projecting scales. Palpi moderate, porrected, rough-scaled. 
Antennae in male bi-pectinated, apex simple. Thorax glabrous beneath. Posterior dime with all 
spurs present. Fore-wings with areole simple. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell 
from near base U> beyond middle."— (Meyrick.) (See Plate 11., figs. 35 and :di, neuration of 
Asa j ili mles megaspilata.) 

We have live species of this genus in New Zealand. 

\. /.. 'Journal of Science' July, 1884. I Trans. X. '/.. Inst. x\i. GO. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 55 

ASAPHODES ABKOGATA, Walk. 

(Aspilates abrogata, Walk. 1075. Fidonia (?) servularia, Gn., E. M. M. v. 43. Z%o?i£ abrogata, Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 61. Asapkodes abrogata, Meyr., ib. xviii. 1H4.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 21 <? .) 

This species has occurred at Murimutu in the North Island ; and in the South 

Island at Kekerangu, Christchurch, Castle Hill, Dunedin, and Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. .1// the wings are ochreous with pair brown markings. The 
fore-wings have a conspicuous dot in the middle, a wavy transverse line a little beyond the middle, 
another line just before the termen, and a brown shading on the termen broader near the apex of the 
wing. The hind-wings have a brown central dot and two transverse lines. The cilia of all the wings 
are brownish. 

This species varies considerably in the distinctness of the brown markings, and there 
is occasionally a transverse line near the base of the fore-wings. 

The perfect insect appears in February and March, and frequents open country, often 
at elevations of from -2,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea-level. It is, I think, rather a local 
species, though abundant where found. I met with it in considerable numbers on the 
chalk range near Kekerangu in the Marlborough Province. 

ASAPHODES SIKIS, Hawth. 
(Asaphodes siris, Hawth., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxix. 283.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 16.) 
This interesting little species was discovered near Wellington by Mr. Hawthorne. 
The expansion of the wings is about f inch. The fore-wings are dull ochreous ; there is a small 
curved brown patch near the base ; then a pale band, followed by a very broad brown central band, 
paler in the middle ; there is a very sharp projection on the outer edge of the central band, a 
conspicuous black dot in the centre of the wing, and a series of minute black dots on the termen. The 
hind- wings are pale ochreous, with a faint central transverse line. 
The perfect insect appears in March. 
Described and figured from the type specimen in Mr. Hawthorne's collection. 

ASAPHODES MEGASPILATA, Walk. 

(Larentia megaspilata, Walk. 1198. Cidaria assata, Feld. exxxi. 4. Gidaria nehata, Feld. exxxi. 6. 

Harpalyce megaspilata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 63. Probolaa megaspilata, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VII., tigs. 17, is, and 19 $ ; figs. 19a and '20 ? , varieties.) 

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull ochreous ; there is a series 
of fine brown and reddish wavy transverse lines near the base, forming a rather broad basal band ; 
then a pale central area containing a blackish dot above the middle ; next, a very distinct band made 
up of several fine wavy grey lines, with a rounded projection near the middle ; this is followed by 
numerous pale brown curved marks forming more or less broken transverse lines; there is always an 
oblique slaty patch below the eipex, and a series of minute dots on the termen. The hind-wings are 
ochreous brown, slightly darker towards the base, with numerous indistinct wavy brown lines. The 
apex of the fore-wing is very pointed and slightly hooked downwards; the termen is bowed near the 
middle. The female is much duller and more uniform in colour than the male, and the antenna' are 
simple. 

This species is very variable. Some male specimens have several more or less 
distinct white markings on the middle of the fore-wings ; the transverse bands also differ 
considerably in both size and intensity. The females are not so variable ; but in some 
specimens the bands on the fore-wings are almost absent, whilst others have the fore- 
wings rich brown, with a very conspicuous dark central band. 



56 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

The eggs when first deposited are pale yellow. They turn dark reddish-brown for some days 
before the young larva emerges. 

The young larva is rather stout, dark brownish-black with numerous fine parallel ochreous lines ; 
the whole body is covered with rather long bristles. 

The perfect insect appears from October till April, and frequents forest, where it is 
generally very abundant. It is a difficult insect to identify on the wing, and in 
consequence is often captured under a misapprehension. 

This species probably hibernates in the imago state during the winter months, as we 
may often observe specimens abroad on mild evenings, at that season. 

ASAPHODES PAEOEA, Meyr. 

(Harpalyce humeraria, Meyr. (nee Walk.), Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 61. Harpalyce parora, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xvii. 63. Probolma parora, ib. xviii. 184.) 

" Male, female. — 29-34 mm. (about 1^ inches) . Fore-wings moderate, apex acute, termen excavated 
on upper half, acutely projecting in middle ; varying from light grey to light reddish-fuscous ; about 
eighteen irregular dentate darker striae, sometimes partially obsolete; first three, seventh and eighth, 
and eleventh to thirteenth usually more distinct and blackish ; seventh and eighth closely approximated, 
forming a small blackish or reddish spot on dorsum, sometimes partially suffused with blackish ; 
eleventh to thirteenth closely approximated, widely remote from eighth, parallel to termen ; a blackish 
discal dot ; sometimes a broad purplish-grey median band ; sixteenth sometimes spotted with blackish 
towards costa; a terminal row of blackish dots. Hind-wings moderate, upper angle broadly 
projecting, termen shortly projecting in middle ; varying from whitish-grey to very pale reddish- 
fuscous, faintly striated with darker. 

"Very variable in colour, but always distinguishable by the peculiar form of wing. 

"Wellington, Christchurch, Mount Hutt ; common amongst bush, in January, 
February, April, and May ; probably generally distributed ; twenty specimens."— 
(Meyrick.) 

I am unacquainted with this insect, but it would appear to closely resemble A. 

megaspilata. 

ASAPHODES EUFESCENS, Butl. 

(Larentia (?) rufescens, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 502. Eurydice cymosema, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 63. 

Eurydioe rufescens, ib. xvii. 63. Romodotis rufescens, ib. xviii. 181.) 

" Male, female. — 25-29 mm. (about 1^ inches). Fore-wings moderate, termen rather strongly 
sinuate ; brown-whitish, sometimes more or less suffused with brown ; numerous fine dark fuscous 
sinuate subdentate lines ; three before middle and four beyond middle more blackish, generally 
partially suffused with brown, leaving a clear median space on costal half, in which is a 
transverse blackish discal dot ; termen suffusedly greyish ; a suffused oblique dark fuscous sub- 
apical streak. Hind-wings moderate, termen irregularly crenulate, somewhat projecting in middle; 
grey whitish ; several subdentate grey lines, only distinct towards dorsum ; a dark grey 
discal dot. 

"Variable only in the degree of the brownish suffusion; in the markings of the 
fore-wings it agrees almost exactly with some forms of A. megaspilata, but, apart from 
structure, may be always known by the whitish hind-wings and rather larger size. 

"Dunedin; ten specimens sent to Mr. Fereday by Capt. Hutton." — (Meyrick.) 

I have only seen one specimen of this insect, in Mr. Fereday's collection, and it 
appeared to me to be identical with the somewhat variable female of A. megaspilata. 

Genus 11.— XANTHOEHOE, Hb. 
" Face with somewhat projecting scales or conical tuft. Antenna' in male bi-pectinated, apex 
usually simple. Palpi rough-scaled. Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with vein 8 
anastomosing with cell to beyond middle." — (Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 37 and 38.) 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 57 

This interesting genus is relatively far more numerous in New Zealand than 
elsewhere, its place in other regions being largely taken by Hydriomena. We have 
no less than thirty-one known species, and many others will no doubt be ultimately 
discovered, especially in the mountainous districts of the west coast of the South 
Island. 

XANTHORHOE LIMONODES, Me.yr. 

(Epyaxa limonodes, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 5-i.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 46 $ .) 

This species has occurred at Wellington and at Cape Terawhiti in the North 
Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings of the male are dull olive- 
green with numerous, rather obscure, wavy brownish transverse lines; these lines are all more 
distinct near the casta : there are two transverse rows of white dots near tlie base, a very broken 
line of white dots at about three-fourths, one of the dots forming a crescentie marl,- above the 
middle; beyond this line the colour is often paler, especially towards the apex, but inside this 
line there is often a considerably darker patch ; there is a very distinct blackish patch just 
below the apex. The apex of the wing slightly projects, and the termen is arched. The hind- 
wings are very pale greenish-ochreous ; there is an obscure dusky transverse line in the middle. 
The female has the fore-wings much browner; there arc several additional rows of white dots 
and two conspicuous white spots above the middle. 

The species is rather variable. In many specimens the dorsal half of the fore- 
wing is much paler than the costal half. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and frequents dense forest. 
It is not a common species. 

XANTHORHOE SUBDUCTATA, Walk. 
(Larentia subductata, Walk. 1198. Epyaxa subductata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 55.) 
This species has occurred at Auckland. 

" The expansion of the w'ings of the female is 26 mm. (about 1 inch). Head, palpi, and 
thorax pale greyish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with yellow-greenish, and densely irrorated with 
fuscous. Antennae whitish-ochreous annulated with fuscous. Abdomen grey-whitish, densely 
irrorated with fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, apex of joints ochreous- whitish, middle and posterior 
pair irrorated with grey-whitish. Fore-wings with costa gently arched, termen waved, slightly 
rounded, oblique; pale greyish-ochreous, mixed with yellow-greenish, and thinly sprinkled with 
fuscous, tending to form faint waved lines ; three light fuscous fasciae, each marked with three 
dark fuscous lines ; first near base, outer edge sharply angulated above middle ; second from two- 
fifths of costa to before middle of dorsum, slightly curved; third from two-thirds of costa to two- 
thirds of dorsum, outer edge somewhat prominent in middle, rather sinuate above it ; a crescentie 
black obscurely whitish-margined discal spot; a short oblique cloudy fuscous streak from ape> ; 
cilia light fuscous, somewhat sprinkled with whitish. Hind-wings light grey ; a grey discal 
dot before middle; a median band of three darker lines, outer rather prominent in middle; faint 
indications of other darker lines, most distinct posteriorly; cilia grey- whitish, with two cloudy 
grey lines." — (Meyrick.) 

The perfect insect appears in December. 

XANTHORHOE ROSEARIA, Dbld. 

{Cidaria rosearia, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. '285, Butl., Cat. pi. iii. 13. Corcmia ardularia, Gn., E. M. M. v. 63. 

Coremia inamanaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 63. Epyaxa rosearia, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 71.) 

(Plate AIT., fig. 22 $, 23?.) 
This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island; and in the South 
Island at Akaroa, Christchurcb, and Dunedin. 

b 



58 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings of the male vary from, 
pale pinkish-grey to pale greenish-grey; there is an obscure darker basal area, a rather broad 
central band, formed of numerous shaded, wavy, dark grey lines, which are generally absent 
towards the middle of the band; there is a black dot above the middle; the termen is shaded 
with dark grey, and there is an oblique pale mark near the apex. The hind-wings are grey 
with a few very faint wavy lines. The cilia of all the wings are pinkish-grey. The female is 
dull yellowish-grey, u-ith the markings very indistinct. 

Both sexes vary slightly in the ground colour, and in the intensity of the 
markings. Mr. Purdie has pointed out that the species is very liable to fade, and 
hence it appears to vary more than is actually the case.* 

The eggs are oval, pale yellow, changing first to orange, and then to dull grey before 
hatching. The young larva, when first emerged, is pale greyish-brown and very slender. Later 
on the caterpillar becomes dull olive-green speckled with black ; there are two paler stripes just 
below the middle of the back, then a fine black line, followed by a very fine white one, then a 
broad pink stripe on the side ; below this is a broad black line followed by a white line and 
two fine black ones. The larva is moderately stout, and the two prolegs are very close together. 

The larva, when full-grown, measures about f inch in length. The general colour is dull 
reddish-brown, often greenish-tinged. The back and sides are marked with numerous slightly 
waved fine black lines ; there is a double series of black dots down the back, a broad black 
lateral line, followed by a fine white line. The under side of the larva is pinkish-brown ; the 
head greenish-brown speckled with black. The caterpillar is obscurely marked, and very variable. 
It is often clouded with greenish colouring. 

The food-plant is watercress. 

The pupa, which is enclosed in a slight cocoon constructed of earth and silk, 
is found on the surface of the ground. 

The perfect insect is most abundant in December, and is attracted by light. It 
seems to be about during the entire year, as Mr. Meyrick states that he has taken 
numerous specimens from May till September, and hence concludes that it is essentially 
a winter species. t I can to some extent confirm this observation, as I have also found 
the insect during the winter, although not commonly. It is probable that there are 
several broods in the course of a year, and that the species hibernates as an imago. 

Regarding the synonymy of this species Mr. Meyrick remarks that " G. ardularia, 
Gn., is the male and G. inarruenaria, Gn., the female of this species. C. subidaria, 
Gn., quoted by Butler as a synonym, is an Australian species, and not identical." \ 

XANTHORHOE OKOTHYLA, Meyr. 
(JEpyaxa orophyla, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 71.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 24 J, 25 5.) 
This line species has occurred in the South Island at Nelson, Castle Hill, 
Mount Hutt, Dunedin and Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is lj inches, of the female If inches. The fore- 
wings of the male arc pale brownish-grey; there is an obscure bent blackish line near the base, 
a moderately broad central baud bounded by two very distinct shaded blackish lines, the basal one 
of which is not curved; the termen is shaded with darker grey, and there is an oblique pale 
mark near the apex. The hind-wings are pale grey tinged with ochreous. 

The female is slightly darker than the male; and there are numerous wavy pale and dark 
grey lines tilling up the entire wing on each side of the central hand. 

The perfect insect appears in December, January, and February. It frequents 
open country on the mountain sides, at elevations of from '2, -000 to 4,000 loot. 

i Trans. N. Z. Inst, xviii. 208. | lb. xvi. 71. J lb. 



IT.— THE NOTODONTINA. 59 

I observed it in great abundance on the Humboldt Range at the bead of Lake 
Wakatipu, where it frequented the damp rocky precipices which were fringed with a 
luxuriant growth of Alpine plants. At Castle Hill it occurred much less commonly, 
so that it would appear to be most plentiful in the extreme south of New Zealand. 
The colouring is protective when the insect is resting on rock surfaces. 

XANTHOEHOE SEMIFISSATA, Walk. 

(Coremia semifissata, Walk. 1320. Coremia ypsilonaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 64. Cidaria delicatulata, Gn., 

E. M. M. v. 94. Epyaxa semifissata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 72.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 26 S , 27 ? .) 

This extremely pretty insect is very common, and generally distributed 
throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about an inch. The fore-wings of the male are pale pink; 
there are several wavy brown lines near the base, a very distinct broivn central band, narrowest 
near the middle, but much broader on the casta than on the dorsum : the centre of this band is 
paler towards the costa ; the termen is shaded with brown, except near the apex of the wing; 
the reins are dotted in black. The hind-wings are bright ochreous with numerous wavy darker 
lines. The female is darker in colour than the male, the central band is broader; there are 
numerous brown and pink wavy lines on each side of the central baud, and the principal reins 
are marked in pale ochreous. The grey transverse lines on the hind-wings are much more 
distinct in the female than in the male. 

The perfect insect appears from September till April, and is very common in 
rather open forest districts, usually frequenting undergrowth on the edges of the 
denser forest. It is often one of the earliest of the Notodontina to appear in spring, 
and its advent is then especially welcome to the collector after the long inaction of 
winter. It is evidently closely allied to X. orophyla, which appears to be the 
southern and Alpine representative of this interesting insect. Coremia ypsilonaria, 
Gn., is the male, and Cidaria delicatulata, Gn., is the female of this species. 

XANTHOEHOE LOPHOGEAMMA, Meyr. 
[Xanthorhoe lophogramma , Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Loiul. 1897, 386.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 47 3 , 48 ? .) 
This species was discovered at Castle Hill in January, 1893. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1J inches. The insect differs from X. semifissata in 
the following respects : In the male the general colour is slightly duller, the outer edge of the 
central band on the fore-wings is mure indented, and the reins an' not dotted in black. In the 
female the markings on the fore-wings are less distinct, the veins are not marked in pale 
ochreous, the outer edge of the central band is more deeply indented, and there is a darker 
shading near the termen than in A", semifissata. The hind-wings of both sexes are dark ochreous, 
without any transverse markings. 

XAXTHOEHOE CHLAMYDOTA, Meyr. 
{Epyaxa chlamydota, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 72.) 
(Plate ATI., fig. 28.) 
This very handsome species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at 
Christchurch and Akaroa in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1| inches. The fore-wings are pale ochreous, with tiro broad, 
dark, purplish-brown bands. The first, which is at the base, is slightly paler near the body, and 
strongly curved outwards towards the termen ; it is followed by several very line pale brown transverse 
lines. The second band is very broad, and is situated near the middle of the /ring ; its inner edge is 
curved inwards, and its outer edge has tiro rounded projections, one eery large about the middle, and 



60 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEIiA. 

another much smaller near the dorsum ; the middle portion of this central hand is considerably paler 
than the edges; tJie two projections of the central band are bordered with bright red. The upper part 
of the termen is ochreous, with several faint brown marks ; the lower part is dull grey. The hind- 
wings are dark ochreous, with a few obscure purplish-grey markings ; the termen of the hind-wing 
projects slightly near the middle, and is rather jagged. 

The species varies a little in the depth of its colouring, but the markings appear to be 
constant. The perfect insect appears from November till April. It chiefly frequents 
forest, but is not a common species. At present, more specimens have been found in the 
Wellington Botanical Gardens than elsewhere. 

XANTHORHOE STINAEIA, Gn. 

(Camptoijramma stinaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 92. Larcntia stinaria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 78.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 29 <? .) 

This species has occurred in the South Island at Christohurch, Dunedin, and at the 
foot of Mount Hutt. 

The expansion of the wings is barely 1 inch. AH the wings are deep ochreous ; the fore-wings 
have an oblique white line running from the, dorsum near the base, towards the middle of the wing ; tltis 
line is edged with blackish-brown towards the dorsum ; there is a very conspicuous white transverse line 
at about three-fourths shaded with brown towards the body ; the apex of the fore-wing slightly 
projects. The hind-wings have no markings. 

The perfect insect appears in December and January. It seems to be fairly common, 
frequenting Carex subdola* 

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Fereday. 

XANTHORHOE MNESICHOLA. 
(Larcntia mnesichola, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 56.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 89 3 .) 
This dull little species has occurred in the South Island on Mount Arthur, at 
elevations of from 4,000 to 4,800 feet. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are pale brownish-ochreous, and rather 
glossy; there is a series of minute black dots at the base, a second series at about one-third, then 
a cloudy curved band, slightly darker titan the rest of the wing, followed by a third series of minute 
black dots ; a fourth series is situated slightly before the termen. The hind-wings are very pale 
brownish-ochreous. 

The perfect insect appears in January. Mr. Meyrick states that it is rather common. 

XANTHORHOE PR.EFECTATA, Walk. 

(Acidalia prafectata, Walk. 781. Acidalia subtentaria, Walk. 1610. Acidalia absconditaria, Walk. 1611; 

Butl., Cat. pi. iii. 21. Larcntia prafectata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 78.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 30.) 

This interesting species has occurred in the South Island at the Dun Mountain, 

Mount Arthur, Christchurch, and Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is about li inches. All the wings are pure white ; the fore-wings 
have a minute grey dot above the middle, a series of extremely minute dots a little before the termen, 
and several rows of very faint grey marks close to the termen. The hind-wings have a row of very 
obscure dots across the middle, and several rows of very faint grey marks close to the termen. The 
face and collar are brown, and there is sometimes an extremely faint brown tinge on the costal edge of 
the fore-wings. The body is pure white. 

The perfect insect appears in November, December, January, and February. I do 
not think it is a very common species, and at present I have only observed it on the I >un 

* Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 7H. 



77. _ THE NOTODONTTNA. 61 

Mountain near Nelson, at an elevation of about 2,700 feet above the sea-level. Here 
I took several specimens on the flowers of an Alpine veronica in the dusk of evening, and 
saw several others, which I was unable to capture. Mr. Meyrick has taken it on 
Mount Arthur at an elevation of 4,500 feet, and Mr. Fereday states that it frequents 
swampy places near Christchurch. 

XANTHORHOE NEPHELIAS, Meyr. 
(Larentia nephelias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 78.) 

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island at Arthur's Pass, 
West Coast Koad, and he has since taken it on Mount Arthur. 

" Male, female. — The expansion of the wings is 32-34 mm. (about lj inches). Fore-wings 
moderate, in female narrower and more elongate, termen rounded ; pale whitish-grey, slightly 
ochreous-tinged ; an indistinct suffusion of dark fuscous scales before middle ; a small dark fuscous 
discal dot ; a rather irregular cloudy dark fuscous line beyond middle, sinuate beneath costa, shortly 
angulated in middle ; a very faint stria beyond this ; a terminal band composed of two rows of cloudy 
partially confluent dark fuscous spots, separating on costa; cilia pale whitish-grey. Hind-wings 
moderate, in female narrower, termen rounded ; ground colour as in fore-wings, with a few grey scales 
posteriorly. 

"A remarkable-looking species. 

"I took two tine specimens above Arthur's Pass (4, GOO feet), in January." — 
(Meyrick). 

I am unacquainted with this species. It is evidently very conspicuous and distinct. 

XANTHORHOE CATAPHRACTA, Meyr. 
(Larentia cataphracta, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 79.) 
(Plate YIP, fig. 33 3 , 34 ? .) 
This large and conspicuous species has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, 
Arthur's Pass, Lake G-uyon, and Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 1| inches, of the female \\ inches. The fore-wings 
are dull yellowish-brown, with numerous slightly waved oblique black and white transverse bands ; one 
very broad white band is situated near the middle, and another at about three-fourths ; there is 
a broad longitudinal reddish-brown line on the costal edge, in which the transverse lines almost 
disappear ; there is also a pale, somewhat triangular, area at the apex. The hind-wings are very pale 
greyish-ochreous. The cilia of all the wings are very pale ochreous. The female is duller and paler 
than the male. 

The perfect insect appears from December till March, and frequents grassy slopes on 
the mountain sides, at elevations of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. I observed this insect in 
great abundance on the Humboldt Range at the head of Lake Wakatipu, but have not 
found it at any of the other Alpine localities I have visited, so I imagine that it is a rather 
local species. 

XANTHORHOE CLARATA, Walk. 

(Larentia clarata, Walk. 1197; But!., Cat. pi. iii. 14. Cideria pyramaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 93. 

Larentia clarata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 79.) 

(Plate VIP, fig. 31 3 , 32 2.) 

This conspicuous species has occurred in the South Island at Lake Rotoiti, Mount 

Arthur, Castle Hill, Mount Hutt, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is H inches, of the female li,- inches. 
The species differs from the preceding in the following respects : The ground colour of the fore- 
wings is brighter, the markings are less oblique and much more jagged ; the large white central hand 
is often broken up into several distinct oval patches ; the costal edge is very slightly shaded with 



62 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEliA. 

brown, and the transverse lines do not disappear before reaching the casta. The hind-wings are bright 
ochreous. The cilia of all the wings are white, strongly barred with yellowish-brown. 

There is slight variation in the details of the markings, but the species can always 
be i in mediately recognised. 

The perfect insect appears in December, January, and February. It frequents open 
grassy places at elevations ranging from 2,000 to 4,500 feet, and is often extremely 
abundant in these situations. 

XANTHORHOE COSMODORA, Meyr. 
(Larentia cosmodora, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 57.) 

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island on Mount Arthur, 
at an elevation of 4,500 feet. 

Female. — 27 mm. (slightly over 1 inch). Head, palpi, antenna 1 , thorax, abdomen, and legs 
whitish-ochreous, slightly brownish-tinged ; abdomen with a double dorsal series of dark fuscous dots. 
Fore-wings with costa hardly perceptibly arched, termen slightly rounded, oblique ; whitish-ochreous, 
slightly yellowish-tinged ; a curved irregular black line rather near base, followed by a white line ; 
median band rather darker, tinged with yellowish-fuscous towards edges, margined with dentate black 
lines and outside these with white, anterior from one-third of costa to two-fifths of dorsum, rather 
curved, posterior from two-thirds of costa to three-fourths of dorsum, somewhat prominent beneath 
costa, and with a more distinct double prominence in middle ; two white dentate-edged spots within 
median band, first beneath costa, containing small black discal dot, second on dorsum ; a waved white 
suhterminal line ; a fine dark fuscous terminal line interrupted into numerous dots ; cilia whitish- 
ochreous, with dark fuscous bars hardly reaching base. Hind-wings whitish-ochreous, with faint 
darker greyish-tinged lines ; a median band of four more distinct cloudy grey lines, first three straight, 
fourth well marked, rather dark fuscous, waved, somewhat prominent in middle, beneath confluent 
with third ; a faint white suhterminal line ; cilia pale whitish-ochreous, with a faint greyish line 
tending to form spots. 

" Appears in January; one specimen. It is conceivable that this may be the other sex 
of the following species, but they are very dissimilar, and I do not at present think it 
probable." — (Meyrick.) 

XANTHORHOE BRYOPIS, Meyr. 
(Larentia bryopis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 57.) 

Discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island on Mount Arthur, 4,500 feet above 
the sea-level. 

"Male.— 29-32 mm. (about 1£ inches). Head, palpi, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale greyish- 
ochreous, slightly greenish-tinged, irrorated with blackish. Antenna? whitish, annulated with black. 
Fore-wings with costa gently arched, termen somewhat rounded, rather oblique; pale greyish-ochreous, 
tinged with olive-greenish, irrorated with blackish-grey, tending to form waved transverse lines on 
basal area ; median band margined with dentate black lines and outside them with white ; anterior 
from one-third of costa to one-third of dorsum, curved, posterior from beyond two-thirds of costa to 
three-fourths of dorsum, somewhat indented above middle, with a moderate double prominence in 
middle; three blackish-grey subdentate lines within median band, first near and parallel to anterior 
edge, other two near and parallel to posterior edge, first and second tending to be confluent below 
middle, space between these more or less suffused with white, enclosing a small black discal spot ; an 
obscure dentate whitish suhterminal line, anteriorly margined with dark fuscous, preceded and followed 
by waved fuscous lines ; a terminal series of pairs of dark fuscous dots ; cilia ochreish-grey, whitish, 
h;ii id with fuscous, and with a fuscous basal line. Hind-wings ochreous-grey, with waved darker 
grey transverse lines, except towards base; a dark grey discal dot before, middle; posterior edge of 
median band formed as in fore-wings, followed by an obscure whitish line and somewhat paler hand ; 
terminal dots and cilia as in fore-wings, but more obscure. 

"Appears in January; not uncommon. Nearest allied to A", beata." — (Meyrick.) 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 63 

XANTHORHOE BEATA, Butl. 
(Ciclana beata, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 397, pi. xliii. 6. Larentia beata, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xvi. 79.) 
(Date VII., fig. 35 3 , 36 2 .) 

This very beautiful species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, is 
common and generally distributed throughout the South Island, and has also been found 
at Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are bright green ; there is a darker 
area at the base edged with a jagged white line; then a paler band followed by a very broad darker 
green central band edged with very jagged white line*, and containing several white patches in the 
middle, one of which is situated close to the costa and encloses a Hack dot; beyond this central band 
there is a paler area, then an interrupted darker green band edged with white ton-arch the termen. 
There is an oblique pale mark from the apex of the wing. The hind-wings are very pale oehreous, 
sometimes slightly tinged with green ; there are several obscure rows of dusky spots. 

The white markings included in the central baud are rather variable. 

The egg is smooth, oval, and pale green in colour. 

The young larva is orange-brown, becoming greenish-brown soon after emergence. The full- 
grown larva is dark brown above and pale brown beneath, the two colours being sharply separated on 
the sides by a broken white line. A series of V-shaped markings is situated on the back, each mark 
enclosing a paler area. Several fine black wavy lines traverse the darker portions of the larva, ami a 
dark mark, edged with black beneath, is situated on each segment just above the ventral surface. 

The food-plant is watercress. 

The pupa is enclosed in a frail cocoon on the surface of the ground. 

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and frequents forest. It is often 
dislodged from dense undergrowth during the daytime, and may be found in the evening 
on the blossoms of the white rata. It is very much commoner in some years than in 
others; hut occasionally several seasons will pass without our noticing a single specimen 
of this attractive insect. The colouring is extremely protective when the moth is resting 
on moss-covered tree trunks. 

XANTHOEHOE ADONIS, n. sp. 
(Plate VII., fig. 49 3 .) 

This extremely beautiful insect has occurred in the South Island at Castle Hill, and 
at Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are vivid green : there is a broad, wavy, 
black transverse line near the base ; a somewhat broken line at about one-third, much broader on the 
costa and edged with white towards the base; a very conspicuous lima// black line at two-thirds, shaded 
towards the base, and sharply edged with white towards flic termen ; between this line and the termen 
there are several black marks, forming another extremely broken transverse line. The hind-wings arc 
pale orange-brown, with a faint grey central band. 

The perfect insect appears in January. It frequents forests at elevations of from 
1,000 to 2,000 feet above the sea-level, but it is not common. 

Mr. Meyrick regards this insect as identical with Xaiithorliue beata. 

XANTHORHOE CHLOIOAS, Meyr. 

(Larentia chlorias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 80.) 

This species was discovered in the South Island at Castle Hill, by Mr. Meyrick. 

"The expansion of the wings of the male is :!() mm. (about 1} inches). Fore-wings moderate, termen 

hardly rounded; bright yellow; base of costa dark fuscous-purple ; a curved row of three very small 

dark purple-fuscous spots about one-fourth, and another of four spots before middle, costal spots larger; a 



64 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

triangular purple blotch on costa before apex, reaching half across wing, anteriorly margined by a 
strongly sinuate bluish-black streak ; a row of three dark purple-fuscous dots from apex of this to 
dorsum, and a subterminal row of six similar dots ; cilia yellow. Hind-wings moderate, termen 
rounded ; rather paler than fore-wings, with two curved posterior rows of cloudy purple-fuscous 
dots. 

" A very beautiful and conspicuous species. 

"I took one line specimen in a wooded gully near Castle Hill, at 3,100 feet, in 
January." — (Meyrick.) 

XANTHORHOE /EGROTA, Butl. 

(Selidosema agrota, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 499. Larentia agrota, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 80.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 37 3 .) 

This rather inconspicuous species has occurred at Palmerston and Kaitoke in the 
North Island ; and at Christchurch, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu in the South Island. 
It has also been taken at Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1| inches. The fore-wings are dull ochreous-brown ; there are 
several indistinct wavy blackish lines near the base, a black dot above the middle, then three or four more 
lines, followed by a cloudy shading on the termen. The hind-wings are pale ochreous-brown. The cilia 
of all the wings are dull ochreous-brown barred with black. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March and is sometimes very common. 
It usually frequents rather open situations in the neighbourhood of forest, and I have often 
observed it amongst the bushes of "Wild Irishman" (Discaria toumatou.) It is extremely 
abundant on the banks of the Kiver Dart, at the head of Lake Wakatipu. 

XANTHORHOE LUCIDATA, Walk. 
(Larentia lucidata, Walk. 1200. Coremia plurimata, ib. 1321. Panagra uenipunctata, ib. 1666. Larentia 
psamathodes, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 81. Larentia lucidata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii. 64.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 38 <?.) 
This rather dull-coloured species has occurred at Napier, Palmerston, and 
Wellington in the North Island, and at Dunedin in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings arc dull yellowish-brown ; there are 
numerous fine, almost straight blackish lines parallel to the termen, forming four more or less distinct 
transverse bands; the first at the base rather broad, the second a little before the middle, the 
third beyond the middle, and the fourth just before the termen ; there is a black dot a little 
above the middle of the wing, and the veins are marked with white dots between the transverse 
bands. The hind-wings are pale brownish-ochreous ; there are numerous, rather faint, wavy, 
blackish, transverse lines, which are much more distinct near the dorsum. There is a series of 
distinct black dots on the termen of both fore- and hind-wings. 

The perfect insect appears during the winter months from March till August. It 
is rather a scarce species, hut on mild evenings it is sometimes taken at light. 

XANTHORHOE HELIAB, Meyr. 

(Larentia helias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 81.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 40.) 

Two specimens of this species have been taken at Dunedin in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. All the wings are pale ochreous ; the fore-wings 

have a slender brown transverse line at the base, then a large loop-like marking from the costa, 

almost meeting a smaller, similarly looped marking from the dorsum ; next a broad irregular dark 

brown band a little beyond the middle, considerably indented towards the termen; tins is loll.. wed 

by a rather narrow pale band, and then by a narrow brown band, also indented towards the 

termen; there is a small oblique brown mark below the apex, and a terminal series of black dots. 

The hind-wings have several faint dusky transverse lines near the base, a row of small spots near the 



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II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 

fcermen, and a terminal series of minute black dots. The cilia of all the wings 
reddish-oehreous. 

The perfect insect appears in January. 

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

XANTHOKHOE PBASINIA8, Meyr. 

(Larentia prasinias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 81.) 

(Plate' VII., fig. 41.) 

This bright-looking species has occurred in the South Island at 
Castle Hill, and Inveroargill. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are bright or 
is a small brown area near the base, with the outer edge indented; then a pale 
a very broad brown central band, composed of wavy transverse lines, with irreg 
between them, the largest of these spaces containing a small black dot ; the i 
central band is very wavy, and has several rather prominent projections near tl 
this are several rather faint brownish lines ; the cilia are yellow, barred with 
hind-wings are pale ochreous, shaded with grey near the base, and with yellow 
the cilia are yellow, barred with brown. 

The perfect insect appears in January, and frequents forest. It is found at 
elevations of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, but is not by any means a common species. 

XANTHORHOE CHIONOGEAMMA, Meyr. 
[Larentia chionogramma, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 82.) 
(Plate VIE, fig. 42 3 , 43 2 .) 
This rather dull-looking species has occurred in the South Island at Mount 
Arthur and Mount Hutt. 

The expansion of the wings is about H inches. The fore-wings are rather dark greyish- 
brown ; there are numerous indistinct wavy paler and darker transverse lines near the base ; a 
rather broad transverse brown band towards the middle, shaded towards the base, and edged with 
an interrupted jagged white line towards the termen ; beyond this there are several broken darker 
and paler lines. The hind-wings are very pale greyish-ochreous, clouded with grey near the 
base, and with several rows of small cloudy grey spots near the termen. The female is paler 
than the male and the markings are less distinct. 

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents wooded 
valleys on the lower slopes of the mountains, at elevations of from -2,000 to 3,000 feet. 

XANTHOEHOE CAMELIAS, Meyr. 
(Larentia camelias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 58.) 

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the North Island at Whangarei. 

" The expansion of the wings of the male is 23 mm. (rather less than 1 inch). Head, antennae, 
and thorax whitish-ochreous, greyish-tinged, with a few dark fuscous scales. Palpi fuscous. 
Abdomen whitish-ochreous, with a double dorsal series of dark fuscous dots. Legs whitish-ochreous, 
irrorated with purple-reddish and dark fuscous. Fore-wings with costa rather sinuate in middle, 
on anterior half gently, on posterior half very strongly arched, termen moderately sinuate below 
apex, bowed in middle ; light greyish-ochreous, with numerous cloudy, waved, brown-grey 
transverse lines, somewhat bent near costa ; a black discal dot ; margin of basal patch and 
anterior edge of median band indicated by series of very minute white dots, preceded and followed 
by black points ; posterior edge of median band marked by a darker line, followed by a fine 
white line reduced on lower half to a series of points, subterminal line represented by four 
cloudy blackish dots on upper half and another above tornus ; cilia greyish-ochreous (imperfect). 
Hind-wings fuscous-whitish ; a median band of four cloudy greyish lines, bent near costa; a cloudy 
grey spot above tornus ; cilia fuscous-whitish (imperfect.) 

"Appears in December. Immediately recognisable by the peculiar form of fore- 
wings."— (Meyrick.) 

9 



fifi NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

XANTHOEHOE FALCATA, Butl. 

(Larentia falcata, Butl., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 58.) 
A single specimen of this species is in the British Museum collection of New- 
Zealand Lepidoptera. Of this specimen Mr. Meyrick remarks as follows : — 

" This appears to be a good species allied to X. camel las, but with the costa of 
fore-wings less arched posteriorly, and posterior edge of median band practically 
straight, not bent near costa; also much darker in general colouring. I have not 
yet seen any specimen except the original type." 

XANTHOEHOE OBARATA, Feld. 
(Cidaria obarata, Feld. cxxxii. 33. Larentia obarata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 82.) 
(Plate VII., fig. 45.) 

This little species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at 
Christohurch and Mount Hutt in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is barely 1 inch. The fore-wings are pale greyish-ochreous ; there 
is an interrupted reddish-brown transverse band near the base ; tiro faint, interrupted shaded blackish 
hues, one at about one-third and the other at about tiro-thirds, enclosing between them a large 
central area, which contains a very distinct black dot above the middle, and several irregular shaded 
black marks; beyond this there is a wavy reddish-brown band; the apex of the wing is somewhat 
projecting, and the termen is considerably bowed. The hind-wings are pale grey, with a paler central 
hand, and numerous faint, wavy, darker grey lines. The cilia of all the wings are white, banded 
with dark grey. 

The perfect insect appears from November till January. Mr. Fereday states that 
it is a plain-frequenting species, especially attached to gorse hedges.* 

Described and figured from a specimen kindly given to me by Mr. Fereday. 

XANTHORHOE CHORICA, Meyr. 

(Larentia chorica, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 58.) 

(Plate VII., fig. 44.) 

A single specimen of this beautiful insect was taken at Akaroa by Mr. Fereday. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. All the wings are pale ochreous. The fore-wings 
have a short transverse black mark from the costa near the base ; a fine wavy white transverse 
line, followed by a wavy black band; the middle of the wing is white, marbled with very pale blue ; 
beyond this there is a broad black band wavy towards the termen, with a very prominent rounded 
projection near the middle; there are two reddish-brown marks on the costa before the apex, 
a blackish patch on the termen below the apex, and a row of terminal black dots ; the apex 
is slightly projecting, and the termen is strongly arched. The hind-wings have several fine 
blackish transverse lines near the base ; a broad shaded band in the middle, and a terminal 
series of black dots. 

The perfect insect appears in January. 

Described and figured from the specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

XANTHORHOE SUBOBSCURATA, Walk. 

(Scotosia subobscurata, Walk. 1358. Larentia petropola, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 82.) 

This species has occurred in the South Island at the Otira Gorge. 

" The expansion of the wings is 3!) mm. (1J inches). Fore-wings moderate, termen rounded 

dark grey, densely irrorated with bluish-whitish ; costa broadly suffused with ochreous-whitish 

anteriorly; a very obscure curved ochreous-whitish line towards base, anteriorly dark -margined ; two 

obscure curved subdentate adjacent whitish lines about one-third, followed by a dark line ; a blackish 

: Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 82. 



1 1. —THE NOTODONTINA. 67 

discal dot ; a very irregular dentate curved dark grey line beyond middle, followed by two adjacent 
whitish lines ; a sharply dentate obscure whitish subterminal line, anteriorly dark-margined. Hind- 
wings moderate, termen rounded; markings as in fore-wings, but more obscure, paler and more 
suffused towards base. 

"A line species, with a peculiar bluish tinge. 

"I took two specimens at rest on rock-faces in the Otira Gorge, at 1,800 feet, in 
January, and saw others." — (Meyrick.) 

X.VXTHOEHOE CINEREAKIA, Dbld. 

{Cidaria (?) cinerearia, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 286. Larentia (?) invexata, Walk. L199 ; But]., Cat., 
pi. iii. 11. Larentia semisignata, Walk. 1200. Larentia inoperata, Walk. 1201. Larentia diffusaria 
Walk. 1201. Larentia pimctilineata, Walk. 1202 ; But!., Cat,, pi. iii. 12. Cidaria dissociata, Walk. 1731. 
Cidaria semilisata, Walk. 1730. Larentia corcularia, Gn., E. M. M. v. Gl. Larentia infantaria, Gn., 
E. M. M. v. 62. Helastia eupitheciaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 95. ? Cidaria sphceriata, Feld. exxxi. 11. 
Larentia cinerearia, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst, xvi. 83.) 

(Plate VIII., tigs. 2 and 2a, varieties.) 

This species is extremely abundant, and generally distributed throughout the 
country. 

The expansion of the wings is from j, inch to 1 inch. The fore-wings vary from pale to dark 
grey : there are generally four mure or less distinct blackish marks on the casta , forming the beginning 
of transverse bands; the rest of the wing is marbled with dark-grey or black, the disposition of the 
markings varying exceedingly in different specimens. The hind-wings are pale grey, with a black dot 
above the middle. 

The variation existing in this species is very great, and is thus described by Mr. 
Meyrick : * " Three main forms occur : one large, greyer, and more uniform ; a second 
of middle size whiter and generally strongly marked sometimes bluish-tinged, only 
found in the hills ; and a third small greyish but ochreous- tinged, strongly marked ; 
these are connected by scarcer intermediate forms, and are, I believe, due to the direct 
effect of food and situation. 

" The larva feeds on lichens." 

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and frequents a great variety 
of situations. The colouring of the fore-wings is beautifully adapted for protection 
on lichen-covered banks, rocks, or fences, where specimens may often be found resting 
with closed wings during the daytime. This species flies rather freely at evening dusk, 
and may then be taken plentifully at sugar, blossoms or light. It is, however, a difficult 
matter to procure specimens in really good condition for the cabinet, as the insect is 
so extremely restless when confined in a box that if it is not killed tit once, it will 
speedily injure itself during its struggles to escape. This moth is found at elevations 
ranging from the sea-level to 3,500 feet. 

XAXTHOKHOE ANTHBACIAS, Meyr. 
(Larentia anthracias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 81.) 

This species has occurred in the South Island at Mount Hutt and Lake Wakatipu. 

"The expansion of the wings of the male is from 24-'25 mm. (about 1 inch, Fore-wings 
moderate, termen sinuate ; dark fuscous, faintly striated, more or less sprinkled with whitish : a 
curved blackish line near base, posteriorly obscurely whitish-margined ; a curved, obscure whitish fascia 
at one-third, blackish margined and bisected by a blackish line ; a well-denned black discal dot ; a white 
fascia, partially mixed with fuscous, beyond middle, anteriorly strongly blackish-margined, posteriorly 
more obscurely, and bisected by a blackish line, somewhat irregular, moderately angulated in middle ; 
♦ Trans. X. Z. Inst. xvi. 83. 



68 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

an obscure dentate yellowish or whitish subterminal line ; an interrupted black terminal line. Hind- 
wings moderate, termen rounded ; dark fuscous ; two nearly straight lines before middle, faintly darker ; 
a faint paler or sometimes whitish sinuate fascia beyond middle, margined and bisected with darker. 

" Varies slightly in distinctness of pale markings. 

"Mount Hutt and Lake Wakatipu (5,400 feet), on the open mountain sides, in 
December and January; twelve specimens." — (Meyrick.) 

XANTHORHOE BULBULATA, Gn. 
(Cidaria bulbulata, Gn., E. M. M. v. 91. Larcntia bulbulata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 84.) 
(Plate VIII., fig. 1.) 
This species has occurred in the South Island at Kekerangu, Christchurch, Castle 
Hill, and Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is barely 1 inch. The fore-wings are very pale brownish-ochreous ; 
there is a brown area near the base ; a moderately broad brown central band with a distinct projection 
near the middle ; the termen is broadly shaded with brown, with a wary paler line in the middle of 
the shading ; there are often several oval paler marks in the middle of the central band, and pale 
brown spots and lines between the darker brown markings. The hind-wings are bright orange, with 
the cilia pale brown. 

The perfect insect appears from September till March, and frecpuents open, grassy 
places, from the sea-level to elevations of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. 

Genus 12.— LYTHEIA, Hb. 

" Face rough-haired or loosely scaled, antennae in male bi-pectinated, apex sometimes simple. 
Palpi with long rough hairs. Thorax roughly hairy beneath. Fore-wings with areole simple. Hind- 
wings with vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle." — (Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 39 and 40, 
neuration of L. chrysopeda.) 

We have two interesting little species in New Zealand. The genus also occurs 
in Europe, and probably elsewhere. 

LYTHEIA CHliYSOPEDA, Meyr. 
(Arcteuthes chrysopeda, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. 48.) 
(Plate VIII., fig. 33 S , 34 $> .) 
This bright-looking little species has been taken in the South Island at Mount 
Arthur. 

The expansion of the wings is about ;j inch. The fore-wings are eery dark, glossy brown • there 
is a pale yellowish transverse line near the base, a broader, rather wary orange-yellow line a little before 
the middle, another still broader at about two-thirds, and an indistinct fne line near the termen. The 
hind-wings are rich orange-brown, with three broad, wary, dark brown transverse bands; the termen is 
narrowly margined with dark orange-brown. The female is generally rather paler than the male, very 
faintly marked specimens occasionally occurring. 

The perfect insect appears in January and February. It frequents the tussock 
openings in the forest on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at elevations of from 3,000 
to 4,000 feet. In these situations it appears to be fairly abundant, flying actively in 
the hottest sunshine. 

LYTHEIA EUCLIDIATA, Gn. 
ICoremia euclidiata, Gn. x. 420. Corcmia glyphicata, ib. 420. Fidonia catapy.irha, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Load. 1H77, 392, pi. xliii. 2. Stratonice catapyrrhd, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 64. Stratonicc euclidiata, 
ib xvii. (33. Arctesthes euclidiata, ib. xviii. 184. Arcteutlies euclidiata, ib. xx. 17.) 
(Plate VII I. . tig. 3.-) 3 ■• 
This pretty little species has occurred in the South Island at Lake Kotoiti near 
Nelson, Lake Guyon, Otira Gorge, Dunedin, and Mount Linton near Invercargill. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 69 

The expansion of the wings is J inch. The fore-wings are dark greyish-brown speckled with 
black and white ; there is a curved black transverse line near the base, followed by a white line, then 
two black lines close together followed by another white line, then a broad black line followed by a 
pale central band containing a well-marked central dot, beyond this there are two angulated black 
lines, and a very conspicuous white line ; there is a broad black shading on the termen, traversed by a 
rather obscure tine white line. The hind-wings are rather narrow, yellowish-orange speckled with 
black near the base, there is a strongly angulated black line near the middle, and an obscure blackish 
band near the termen. On the under side the fore-wings are yellow, with two black transverse bands 
from the costa near the termen and a red mark near the apex ; the hind-wings arc streaked with 
white and yellow, and broadly bordered with red on the casta and termen ; there are two very broad 
black transverse bands. The female is paler than the male, with the dark markings rather narrower. 

The perfect insect appears in February and March, and frequents open, sunny 
places, at elevations of from 1,000 to -2,000 feet above the sea-level. 

Genus 13.— DASYUEIS, Gn. 

" Face rough-haired or with projecting scales. Palpi moderate, porrected, with long dense 
rough hairs. Antenna? in male shortly ciliated. Thorax and coxa? densely hairy beneath. Posterior 
tibiae with all spurs present. Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with vein 8 anastomosing 
with cell from near base to beyond middle." — (Meyrick.) (Plate II., fig. 42, neuration of fore- 
wing. Hind-wing as in Xanthorhoe.) 

Of this genus we have four species in New Zealand. 

DASYUEIS ENYSII, Butl. 

(Fidonia enysii, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1877, 391, pi. xlii. 9. Statin, homomorpha, Meyr., Trans. 
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 91. Statira enysii, Lb. xvii. 65. Stathmonyma enysii, ib. xviii. 184.) 
(Plate VIII., fig. '28.) 
This species has occurred in the South Island on the Dun Mountain near Nelson, 
and lit Mount Hutt. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are greyish-brown, with 
numerous wavy blackish transverse lines ; there is usually a wavy yellowish transverse stripe 
near the base, and another broader and more conspicuous stripe near the termen; the termen 
itself is broadly shaded with dark brown. The hind-wings are orange-yellow; there is a small 
dusky brown area near the base, then a taint straight transverse line, followed by a slightly 
waved conspicuous dark brown line; there is a very wavy broad dark brown line near the termen, 
and the termen itself is narrowly edged with dark brown. 

The perfect insect appears in January and February, and frequents stony situations 
on the mountains, at elevations of from '2,500 to 4,000 feet. I have taken numerous 
specimens on the "Mineral Belt," Dun Mountain, but have not yet met with it 
elsewhere. This insect is probably often mistaken during flight for Notoreas Irephos, 
from which it may easily be distinguished by its larger size, paler colouring, and 
simple antennce of the nude. 

DASYUEIS ANCKPS, Butl. 

[Fidonia anceps, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 39:2, pi. xliii. 3. Statira anceps, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Iubt. xvi. 91. Stathmonyma a>iceps, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VIII. , fig. 29.) 

This species has been taken in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Castle Hill, 

and Arthur's Pass. 

The expansion of the wings is about H inches. The fore-wings are bluish-grey; there are 
four wavy dark grey transverse lines, the three lines nearest the base are double, and the line 
nearest the termen is shaded towards the base. The hind-wings are pale yellow ; there is a small 
dusky area near the base, then a slightly curved grey line, followed by two curved dark grey lines 



70 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

close together ; there is a series of irregular blotches near the terrnen, and the termen itself is 
broadly edged with black near the apex of the wing, and narrowly near the tornus. The cilia of 
all the wings are bluish-grey, barred with dusky black. 

The perfect insect appears in January and February, and frequents bare rocky 
situations on the mountains, at elevations of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. On one 
occasion I met with this species very plentifully, though in poor condition, on Mount 
Peel, near Mount Arthur ; but subsequent visits have led me to think that, as a rule, 
it is rather a scarce species. The bluish-grey colouring of the fore-wings affords 
this moth a most efficient protection from enemies, whilst resting on the rocky 
ground which it always frequents. 

Apart from special characters, the fainter colouring of this insect will at once 
distinguish it from any of the numerous allied species. 

DASYURIS PABTHENIATA, Gn. 

(Dasyuris partheniata, Gn., E. M. M. v. 93 ; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 92.) 

(Plate VIII., fig. 30 $, 31 ? .) 

This bright-looking species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and 
at Mount Arthur and Mount Hutt in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about \\ inches. The fore-wings are bright orange-yellow; 
the base is speckled with black and dull green scales ; there is a rather indistinct band at about 
one-third; a broad wavy dark brown band a little beyond the middle, with a projection towards 
the termen, followed by a clear space and another broad irregular dark transverse band ; the 
termen is broadly bordered with dark brown, which is often almost continuous with the 
last-named transverse band. The hind-wings are bright orange; there is a large speckled area 
near the base edged with a curved black line, followed by a clear space, and an interrupted dark 
brown transverse Hue considerably beyond the middle ; the termen is rather narrowly edged with 
a dark brown line, wavy towards the base of the wing. The cilia of all the wings are yellow 
barred with black. 

The species varies considerably in the extent of the dark markings, especially on the fore-wings. 

The egg is oval and white, without sculpture. 

The young larva, which is very attenuated, has sixteen legs. Its colour is pale yellowish- 
brown above, and dull ochreous beneath. The food-plant is unknown. 

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and frequents open, grassy 
situations. At Wellington, during October and November, it is common on the cliffs 
close to the shores of Cook's Strait, flying very rapidly on hot, sunny days, which 
renders its capture very difficult in such steep situations. Mr. Fereday's specimens 
were obtained amongst the tussock grass at the foot of Mount Hutt. The insect was 
also found plentifully on the slopes of Mount Arthur, at an elevation of about 4,500 
feet above the sea-level, and also on the Tararua Range in the North Island. 

DASYUEIS HECTOEI, Butl. 

(Euclidia hectori, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 387, pi. xlii. 1. Statira hectori, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xvi. 91. Stathmonyma hectori, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VIII., fig. 32.) 

This very striking species has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, 

Mount Hutt, and Ben Lomond, Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings is H inches. All the wings are dark greyish-black, speckled 
with bluish-grey scales. The fore-wings have live rather indistinct wavy darker transverse lines, 
and a very broad darker shading near the termen ; there is a fine white mark near the apex, 
continued as an indistinct wavy line towards the tornus. The hind-wings have three or four 



IT.— THE NOTODONTTNA. 71 

indistinct darker transverse lines, and a very broad terminal shading; there are two, more or 
less distinct, line, wavy, white lines, the first a. little below the middle, and the second near the 
termen ; the cilia are dark grey barred with pale grey. On the under side all the wings are dark 
blackish-grey, traversed by six broad wavy whitish lines. 

The perfect insect appears in December, January and February, and frequents 
rocky crags on mountains, at elevations of from 4,700 to 5,700 feet above the sea- 
level. It delights to rest on blackened rocks in the hottest sunshine, but dashes 
away with the greatest rapidity on the approach of the collector, so that it is 
generally rather difficult to capture. 

Genus 14.— NOTOREAS, Meyr. 

" Face roughly haired. Palpi moderate, second joint with long or very long spreading hairs 
beneath, terminal joint moderate or rather long, often concealed. Antenna- in male bi-pectinated. 
Thorax beneath more or less strongly clothed with long hairs. Fore-wings with vein (3 rising out 
of 9, 7 almost from angle of areole, K> anastomosing moderately with 9, 11 anastomosing 
moderately or very shortly with 10, 12 free. Hind-wings normal. " — (Meyrick.) (See Plate II., 
tig. 43, fore-wing of Notorcas brephos.) 

This interesting genus, of which we have no less than fifteen species, comprises 
a number of gaily coloured little insects, chiefly inhabiting mountain regions. All the 
species are day-fiiers, and most of them only appear during the hottest sunshine. 
Mr. Meyrick regards the genus Notoreas as most closely approaching to the ancestor 
of the family Hydriomenidcp. 

NOTOEFAS INSIGNI8, Butl. 

(Aspilates insignis, Butl, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1S77, 393, pi. xliii. 1. Pasithca insignis, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. Kvi. 85. Notoreas insignis, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VIII., fig. :-! «? .) 

This very striking species has been taken in the South Island at Castle Hill. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 1^ inches, of the female 1 inch. The fare- 
wings of the nude are dull yellowish-brown : in the middle of the wing there is an almost straight 
Ion,/ white streak from the base to about th ree- fourths ; there is another straight white streak 
parallel to the termen and almost touching the apex. The hind-wings are bright ochreous speckled 
with brown near the base. The female lias the wings rather narrower than the male, and the 
ground colour is paler. 

The perfect insect appears in January. Mr. Fereday's specimens, which formed 
the basis for the above figure and description, were captured on a bare mountain side 
at an elevation of about 4,000 feet. Mr. Hawthorne has directed my attention to the 
remarkable similarity existing between the markings on the fore-wings of this 
species and those on Xanthorhoe stinaria. 

NOTOEFAS OEPHN.FA, Meyr. 
(Pasithca orphncea, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 85. Notoreas orphnma, ib. xviii. 184.) 

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island at Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings of the female is from 28 to 30 mm. (about lj inches). "Fore-wings 
moderate, termen rounded; dark fuscous, mixed with yellowish and whitish, which tend to form 
alternate fasciae ; a discal dot and numerous curved irregularly dentate blackish lines, varying in 
strength and intensity; cilia barred with blackish and whitish. Hind-wings moderate, termen 
rounded; dark fuscous; a blackish discal dot; a cloudy whitish irroration forming a double curved 
fascia beyond middle, and a dentate subterminal line ; cilia as in fore-wings. 

" Imitative in colour of the dark lichen-grown rocks. 



72 NEW ZEALAND MACEO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

" I took three specimens almost on the summit of Ben Lomond, Lake Wakatipu, at 
5,600 feet, in January." — (Meyrick.) 

NOTOREAS ISOLEUCA, Meyr. 
[Notoreas isoleuca, Meyr., Trans. Bnt. Soc. Lond., 1897, 38G.) 
(Plate VIII. , fig. 27.) 
This little species has been taken in the South Island on the Craigieburn Eange, near 
Castle Hill. 

The expansion of the wings is about f inch. All the wings are very dark blackish-brown; the 
fore-wings have five slender wavy white transverse lines. The hind-wings hare three white transverse 
lines, the first near the base, the second near the middle, and the third, which is very slender and 
considerably broken, near the termen. The cilia of all the wings arc white, barred with blackish- 
brown. 

The perfect insect was captured in January, amongst a varied growth of stunted 
Alpine vegetation, at an elevation of about 5,000 feet. 

NOTOREAS MECHANITIS, Meyr. 

(Pasithea mechanitis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 86. Notoreas mechanitis, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VIII. , figs. 9, 10, 11, varieties.) 

This insect has occurred in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Arthur's Pass and 
Mount Hutt. 

The expansion of the wings is about § inch. All the wings are dark brownish-black. The fore- 
wings have an almost straight transverse yellow or white stripe near the base, edged with black towards 
the body ; a rather wavy stripe at about one-third, edged with black towards the termen : then several 
irregular yellowish or white spots or marks , followed by a very distinct white stripe, somewhat pro- 
jecting towards the termen near the middle ; there is a broken fine yellow line near the termen. The 
hind-wings have a shaded white or yellow transverse line near the base, another near the middle, a 
third, considerably finer and often broken, near the termen. The cilia of all the wings are white 
shaded with grey near the base, but with no distinct bars. 

The perfect insect appears from January till March, and flies with great activity in 
the hottest sunshine. It frequents grassy mountain sides at elevations ranging from 
3,000 to 4,500 feet above the sea-level, and in these situations it is often very abundant. 

NOTOREAS PARADELPHA, Meyr. 
(Pasithea paradelpha, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 86. Notoreas paradelpha, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VIII., figs. 12, 13, 14, varieties.) 
In the South Island this insect has occurred on Mount Arthur, and on Ben Lomond, 
Lake Wakatipu, at elevations of from 3,600 to 5,000 feet. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The species is said to be distinguished from the 
preceding "by the barred cilia, the absence of any clear yellow colouring, the less prominent 
angulation of the post-median line and the more elongate wings." * — (Meyrick.) 

The perfect insect appears in December, January and February. In habits it 
exactly resembles Notoreas mechanitis. 

NOTOREAS PERORNATA, Walk. 
(Fidonia perornata, Walk. 1672. Pasithea perornata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 87. Notoreas perornata, 

ib. xviii. 184.) 
(Plate VIII. , figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, varieties.) 
This very pretty insect has occurred at Palmerston and Wellington in the North 
Island, and at Kekerangu, Mount Arthur, Lake Coleridge, Mount Hutt and Lake 
Wakatipu, in the South Island. 

Trans. N. '/.. Inst. xvi. 86. 



II.— THE NOTODONTIX.t. 73 

The expansion of the wings is about f inch. The fore-wings are dark brownish-black, with five 
transverse white or orange-yellow lines, which vary considerably both in width and colour in different 
specimens ; the two basal lines are almost straight, the rest are wavy, the last but one has, near the 
middle, a strong projection towards the ternien. The hiyid-wings are bright orange, with three or four 
mure or less broken black transverse lines. The ternien is narrowly bordered with black; the cilia of 
all the wings are white, more or less distinctly barred with blackish-brown. 

The perfect insect appears in February, March and April, flying very actively in the 
hot afternoon sunshine. It is extremely abundant on the coast hills in the neighbour- 
hood of Wellington. It also occurs commonly at Kekerangu, and is occasionally found 
on mountains as high as from 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea-level. I have observed 
that all the Wellington specimens have the transverse lines on the fore-wings narrow and 
mostly white ; those from Mount Arthur broad and white, those from Kekerangu and 
Lake Wakatipu broad and orange-yellow. The last-named forms approximate most 
closely to some of the very yellow varieties of Notoreas paradelpJia* 

NOTOEEAS STEATEC4ICA, Meyr. 

(Pasithea strategica, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 87. Notoreas strategica, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Elate VIII., tig. 15.) 

A single specimen of this conspicuous species was taken in the South Island at Lake 
Guyon, by Mr. W. T. L. Travers. 

The expansion of the wings is 1^ inches. The fore-wings are dull yellowish-brown, becoming 
blackish-brown near the base; there are two broad white transverse lines near the base, the outermost 
slightly curved, then a dull orange shading , followed by a very broad, outwardly bent, white transverse 
band, edged witli black towards the base : between this band and the ternien there is a fine wavy white 
transverse line. The hind-wings are dull yellowish-brown near the base, becoming blackish towards the 
ternien ; there is a small cream-coloured area near the base, then two rather broad, slightly irregular. 
cream-coloured bands, and a rather fine wavy white line near the ternien. The cilia of all the wings are 
white, barred with blackish-brown. 

The perfect insect appears in January. 

Described and figured from the type specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

NOTOREAS CALLICRENA, Meyr. 

(Pasithea. callierena Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 87. Notoreas callicrena, ib. xviii. 184.) 
(Elate VIII. , rig. 16.) 

A single specimen of this very handsome species was captured by Mr. Fereday in the 
South Island, high on the mountains at the head of Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings is If inches. The fore-wings are deep orange-brown, shaded with 
black near the base and in t/ie vicinity of the three cream-coloured transverse bands; the first of these 
hands is situated near the base, the second at about one-third, ami the third, which is rather wavy, at 
about two-thirds; there is a fine wavy white line close to the termen. The hind-wings are dark, 
grey, with two broad cream-coloured bands, the first near the base and the second near the middle ; 
there is a slender wavy line near the termen. The cilia of all the wings are cream-coloured, barred 
with brownish-black. 

The perfect insect appears in January, and evidently frequents high mountains. 

Described and figured from the type-specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

* In connection with these three species of Notoreas I should here mention that I hare a number of specimens in my 
collection which appear to me to establish a complete transition between N. mechanitis, N. paradelpha, and N. perornata. 
From a careful study of these specimens I am led to believe that these three forms are really only varieties of one very 
variable species. Mr. Meyriek does not at present share this opinion, but I am disposed to think that this is chiefly due to 
the comparatively limited number of specimens he has had the opportunity of examining. In any case I do not regard tin 
question of the specific or varietal values of these, or indeed of any other forms, as matters of great scientific importance, 
being, to a great extent, merely matters of individual opinion. 

10 



74 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

NOTOREAS NIPHOCEENA, Meyr. 
(Pasithea niphocrena, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 88. Notoreas niphocrena, ib. xviii. 184.) 

This species was discovered by Mr. Meyrick in the South Island, at Arthur's Pass, 
West Coast Eoad. 

" The expansion of the wings of the female is from '24 to 25 mm. (1 inch). Fore-wings moderate, 
termen rounded ; rather dark fuscous, mixed and obscurely striated with orange ; a curved white sub- 
dentate line before one-fourth, anteriorly blackish-margined ; a similar white line beyond one-fourth, 
posteriorly blackish-margined ; space between these sometimes suffused with orange ; a slender 
irregularly dentate white fascia beyond middle, rather strongly angulated in middle, anteriorly 
blackish-margined, posteriorly closely followed by a dentate orange line ; a dentate orange line near 
termen, dilated on costa. Hind-wings moderate, termen rounded ; orange, lighter anteriorly ; basal 
half dark fuscous mixed with orange, its outer edge irregularly curved ; a dentate subterminal 
fascia and narrow terminal fascia dark fuscous, sometimes obscure. 

" Possibly when the male is known this may prove to be a Dasyuris. 

"I took two specimens on the mountain-side above Arthur's Pass at 4,500 feet, in 
January."— (Meyrick.) 

NOTOREAS SIMPLEX, n. sp. 
(Plate VIII. , fig. 26.) 

A single specimen of this species was captured on Mount Arthur in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1£ inches. The fore-wings are bright ochreous; there are 
four broad black transverse bands near the base, edged with white, and separated from one another by 
yellow spaces of almost equal width ; the outermost of these bands is situated a little more than half- 
way between the base and termen ; the last two lines become obsolete before they reach the costa ; 
there are no other markings, except a black shading on the termen near the tornus, which is 
traversed by an obscure jagged paler line ; the cilia are white barred with black. The hind-wings 
are bright orange-yellow, without markings ; the cilia are ochreous. 

The perfect insect appears in January. 

The type-specimen was taken on the mountain-side, at an elevation of about 
4,000 feet. 

NOTOREAS EEROX, Butl. 

(Fidunia ferox, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1877, 392, pi. xlii. 8. Pasithea ferox, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xvi. 88. Notoreas ferox, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VIII., fig. 17.) 

Two specimens of this species were captured by Mr. J. D. Enys, at Castle Hill in the 
South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull brown, with numerous 
fine, wavy, dusky lines and a faint dot above the middle. The hind-wings are orange-yellow, dotted 
with black near the base; there is a rather broad straight transverse blue): band near the middle, 
followed bij a much finer wavy line; there are three fine, wavy lines parallel with the termen, and the 
termen itself is finely bordered with black. 

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

NOTOREAS ZOPYRA, Meyr. 
(Pasithea zopyra, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 89. Notoreas zopyra, ib. xviii. 184.) 
(Plate VEIL, figs. 18 and 19, varieties.) 
This bright-looking little species has occurred at Mount Arthur and at Mount Hutt, 
in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about '; inch. The fore-wings are dark bluish-grey, with numerous 
slender, wavy, blackish transverse lines, and a distinct blackish dot above the middle. The hind-wings 
are bright orange, speckled with grey near the base and dorsum; there are from two to four very fine, 
wavy, broken, blackish, transverse lines, and the termen is narrowly bordered with black. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 75 

The perfect insect appears in January, frequenting shingle flats on the mountain 
sides, at about 4,000 feet above the sea-level. It flies rapidly in the hottest sunshine, and, 
when it alights on the stones, is extremely difficult to find. The brilliant hind-wings, 
which are very conspicuous when the moth is flying, quite disqualify the eye from detect- 
ing the extremely obscure object, which the insect instantly becomes when resting with 
its fore-wings alone exposed. This method of increasing the value of protective tints by 
means of bright colours temporarily displayed was very clearly described, I believe for the 
first time, by Lord Walsingham in his address to the Fellows of the Entomological 
Society of London, in January, 1891. It is certainly well exemplified by this and several 
other species of the genus Notoreas, and it will be at once noticed by the collector, how 
extremely difficult it is to follow these active little moths, as they fly with short and rapid 
flight over the grey rocks and stones, with which their fore-wings so completely har- 
monize ; the momentary glimpse obtained of the brilliant hind-wings so completely 
deceives the eye, that there is much more difficulty in marking the spot where the insect 
alights, than would have been the case if the brilliant colour had never been displayed. 

NOTOREAS VULCANICA, Meyr. 

Pasithca vulcanica, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 89. Nvtorcas vulcanica, ib. xviii. 18-4.) 

(Plate VIII., fig. 24.) 

This species has been taken in the North Island at Makotuku, and the Kaweka 
Range, in the Hawkes Bay District. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are very dark blackish-grey ; there is a 
rather narrow black transverse line near the base, another at about one-third ; then a small black dot, 
followed by a wavy, rather broad, black band, and two cloudy wavy black transverse lines near the 
termen. The hind-wings are very dark orange : there is a large black basal patch, then a broad black 
band joining the basal natch near the dorsum ; beyond this is a fine black line, then another broad 
black line followed by a very fine war;/ line of the orange ground colour: the termen is very broadly 
margined with black. 

The perfect insect appears from January to March. Mr. Meyrick states that he 
found it resting on the roads near Makotuku. 

Described and .figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

NOTOREAS BREPHOS, Walk. 

(Fi Ionia brephosata, Walk. 1037; Bufcl., Cat. pi. iii. 14. Larentia catocalaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 
62. Fidonia brephos, Feld. exxix. 5. Pasithsa brephos, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 89. Notoreas 
brephos, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate VIII., figs. 20, 21, 22, and 23, varieties.) 

This very pretty species is common, and generally distributed throughout the 
country. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are dark grey ; there is a wavy 
black line near the base, two similar lines enclosing a very broad central area, with a black dot a little 
above the middle ; beyond this there is a more or less distinct wavy band of pale grey or brown ; there 
are several obscure wavy blackish lines near the termen. The hind-wings are bright orange, dotted 
with grey near the base and dorsum, with from two to four more or less distinct wavy black transverse 
lines, generally rather narrow ; the termen is moderately broadly bordered with black. 

This insect is extremely variable, and, so far as I can judge from an extensive series, 
several of the varieties appear to indicate that both Notoreas zopyra and N. vulcanica may 
ultimately have to be ranked as varieties of N. breplws, but the evidence on this point is 
not yet conclusive enough to render such a course at present desirable. 



% 



76 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

The perfect insect appears from December to March. It is very active, and is 
extremely fond of settling on roads or bare ground in the hot sunshine, instantly 
darting away on the approach of an enemy. It is also common on the mountains, and 
is often found at elevations of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea-level. 

NOTOBEAS OMICHLIAS, Meyr. 
(Pasithea omichlias, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 90. Notorcas omichlias, ib. xviii. 184.) 
(Plate VIII., fig. 25.) 
Two specimens of this dull-looking little species were captured at Castle Hill, by Mr. 
J. D. Enys. 

The expansion of the wings is § inch. All the wings are dark grey ; the fore-wings have several 
obscure blackish marks near the base, a dull black spot on the casta at about one-third with a yellowish 
centre ; beyond this there are four similar spots forming a transverse band, and several more or less 
conspicuous wavy blackish lines near the termen. The hind-wings have several obscure wavy blackish 
transverse lines near the base and dorsum ; the cilia are pale grey, obscurely barred with darker grey. 
The perfect insect was taken " high up " on the mountains, probably at an elevation 
of about 5,000 feet. 

This species is probably often overlooked through being mistaken for XantJwrhoe 
cinerearia. 

Genus 15.— SAMANA, Walk. 

" Face loosely haired. Palpi long, straight, porrected, attenuated. Antennae in male dentate, 
ciliated (1). Fore-wings with vein rising below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 anasto- 
mosing strongly with 9, 11 anastomosing strongly with 10, 12 free. Hind-wings normal." — 
(Meyrick.) 

Of this genus we have two species in New Zealand. 

SAMANA FALCATELLA, Walk. 

(Samaiw falcatella., Walk, xxvii. 197. Panagra falcatella, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 93. Samana 

falcatella, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii. 65.) 

(Plate VIII. , fig. 36.) 

This unusual-looking species has occurred in the South Island, at Nelson and 

at Dunedin. 

The expansion of the wings is 1^ inches. The fore-wings are very pale ochreous, speckled 
with grey; there is a very fine longitudinal black streak from a little beyond the base to considerably 
before the middle, slightly clouded above ; an elongate dot above the middle ; a very oblique slightly 
curved black streak from near the apex to the middle of the dorsum, edged with white towards 
the base, and clouded with brown towards the termen ; the apex of the wing is very acute. The 
hind-wings are white, with a black dot above the middle. 

The perfect insect appears in February. It is apparently a rare species. 

SAMANA ACUTATA, Butl. 
(Samana acutata, Butl., P. Z. S. L. 1877, 401; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvii. 67.) 
The type-specimen of this species exists in the collection of the British Museum. 
According to Mr. Meyrick, who made a cursory examination of it, the species differs 
from S. falcatella in the following respects : — 

The first dark line runs from the dorsum near the base to below the costa before the 
middle ; the lower extremity of the second line is connected with the tornus by an oblique 
streak. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 77 

Family 2 — STERRHID^E. 

" Face smooth. Tongue developed. Palpi shortly rough-sealed. Fore-wings with vein 10 
rising out of 9, 11 anastomosing or connected with 9. Hind-wings with vein 5 fully developed, 
rising from middle of transverse vein, parallel to 4, 8 very shortly anastomosing with upper 
margin of cell near hase, thence rapidly diverging." — (Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 49 and 50.) 

Although less numerous than the preceding, the family is pretty evenly distributed 
throughout the world, but poorly represented in New Zealand. We have only one 
genus, viz;., Leftomeris. 

Genus 1.— LEPTOMERIS, Hb. 

" Antennae in male ciliated with fascicles. Posterior tibia in male dilated without spurs, in 
female with all spurs present. Hind-wings with veins 6 and 7 sometimes stalked (variable in the 
same species)." — (Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 49 and 50.) 

We have one species, which also occurs in Australia. 

LEPTOMEKIS KUBEARIA, Dbld. 

(Ptychopoda (?) rubraria, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 286; Walk. 781. Fidonia (?) acidaliaria, Walk. 1037 

Acidalia figlinaria, Gn. ix. 454, pi. xii. 8. Acidalia rubraria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 57.) 

(Plate VIII. , fig. 37 <? , 38 2 .) 

This pretty little insect is very common, and generally distributed throughout 
the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about £ inch. The fore-wings are reddish-ochreous with three 
dull brown wavy transverse lines, the first rather narrow at about one-fourth, the second slightly 
broader at about one-half, the third much broader, and sometimes -partially divided near the 
costa ; there is a black central dot, a series of rather large dull brown spots near the termen, and 
a chain of minute black dots on the termen. The hind-wings are pinkish-ochreous ; there is a 
dull brown war)/ transverse band near the base, then two close together a little beyond one-half, a 
shading on the termen, and a very distinct series of minute black terminal dots. The cilia of all 
tin' wings are dull brown, mixed with reddish-ochreous. 

There is often considerable variation in the intensity of the colouring of this 
insect, some specimens being much darker than others, but the markings are very 
constant, and the species is thus always easily recognizable. 

The eggs are yellowish-white, and very large for the size of the moth. 

The young larva is brownish-purple with a dull white line on each side. The 
food-plant is unknown. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. In the late summer 
and autumn it frequents dried-up, weedy pastures, where it is often extremely abundant. 
Straggling specimens, which have probably hibernated during the winter, may also 
be taken in the early spring. 

Mr. Meyrick states that this species occurs very commonly in New South Wales, 
Victoria, and Tasmania, and that there is no difference between Australian and New 
Zealand specimens. 

Family 3— MONOCTENIADiE. 

"Hind-wings with vein 5 fully developed, parallel to 4, rising from about or below middle 
of transverse vein, 8 free or anastomosing shortly near base or seldom from near base to beyond 

* Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 57. 



78 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

middle (then without areole of fore-wings) ; approximated to upper margin of cell to middle or 
beyond." (See Plate II., figs. 44 and 45.) 

"Ovum subcylindrical, smooth. Larva more or less elongate, usually with few hairs, prolegs 
on segments 7, 8, and sometimes 9 rudimentary or absent. Pupa subterranean or in bark." 
— (Meyrick.) 

According to Mr. Meyrick this is to be regarded as a decaying family. In 
Australia it is still prominent, being represented there by nearly 100 known species. 

We have two genera represented in this country — 

1. DlCHROMODES. 2. ThEOXENA. 

Genus 1.— DlCHROMODES, Gn. 

" Face smooth. Palpi long, straight, porrected, roughly scaled above and beneath. Antennae 
in male pectinated on inner side only. Fore-wings with vein 6 from a point with 9, 7 from 
angle of areole, 10 anastomosing moderately with 9, 11 separate, approximated to 10 in middle, 
12 free. Hind-wings with veins G and 7 separate, 8 free, closely approximated to 7 from base 
to near transverse vein." — (Meyrick.) (See Plate II., figs. 44 and 45, neuration of D. petrina.) 

There are three species belonging to this genus known in New Zealand. 

DICHEOMODES NIGEA, Butl. 

(Cacopsodos niger, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc, Loud. 1877, 395, pi. xliii. 4. Dichromodes nigra, Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xx. GO.) 

(Plate VIII., fig. 40.) 

This little insect has been taken at Nelson. 

The expansion of the wings is £ inch. All the wings are dull Hack. The fore-wings have a 
darker central area, bordered by two jagged pale grey transverse lines, the first at about one-third 
and the second at about two-thirds ; there is also a faint line near the termen. The hind-wings 
have a very obscure dark central line. 

The perfect insect appears in February. It occurs quite commonly on the track 
to the Dun Mountain, near Nelson, frequenting openings in the birch forest, where it 
may be captured at rest on bare ground in the hot sunshine, at elevations of from 
1,500 to 2,000 feet. 

DICHEOMODES GYPSOTIS, Meyr. 
(Cacopsodos niger, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. lust. xvi. 94 (nee Butl). Dichromodes gypsotis, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xx. 60. 

This insect was discovered by Mr. Meyrick at Lake Wakatipu in the South 
Island. 

The expansion of the wings of the female is 13 mm. (\ inch). " Fore-wings rather narrow, 
costa sinuate, termen sinuate ; white, slightly mixed with grey ; dorsum narrowly grey ; a slender 
black fascia almost at base ; a slender black fascia at one-third, dentate inwards above middle, 
dilated on costa ; a slender black fascia beyond middle, shaiply angulated in middle, dilated on 
costa, connected below middle with preceding fascia by a suffused bar; close beyond this a 
rather broad parallel grey fascia ; an indistinct grey subterminal line. Hind-wings moderate ; 
termen rounded dark grey." — (Meyrick.) 

Taken in December, at an elevation of about 1,500 feet above the sea-level. 

DICHEOMODES PETEINA, Meyr. 
{Dichromodes petrina, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxiv. 21G.) 
(Plate VIII., fig. 39.) 
This dull-looking little insect has occurred at Paikakariki and Wellington in the 
North Island, and at Kekerangu in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings is | inch. The fore-icings are dull greenish-grey ; there is a 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 79 

black, wavy, somewhat broken transverse line at about one-third, and another at about two-thirds, 
enclosing a slightly darker central band, with a black dot above middle; there is also a darker 
shading on the termen, and an obscure wavy paler line. The hind-wings are grey, with an 
obscure wavy central line. 

Tht' perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It frequents dry, 
open, sunny situations, generally alighting on paths or roads. It is also attracted by 
light, 

Genus ±— THEOXENA, Meyr. 

" Palpi moderate, triangularly scaled, porrected. Antennae in male bi-ciliated with long tufts 
of cilia (5). Fore-win^s with vein (3 from below 9, 7 from angle of areole, 10 out of 9 above 7, 
11 anastomosing shortly with 9, 12 free, closely approximated to 11 on areole. Hind-wings with 
veins and 7 from a point or short-stalked, 8 live, closely approximated to 7 from base to uear 
transverse vein." — (Meyrick.) 

We have one species. 

THEOXENA SCISSAEIA, Gn. 

(Panagra scissaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 43. Theoxena scissaria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 56.) 
(Plate VIII., fig. 41.) 

This delicate-looking species has occurred at Christchurch. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. All the wings are white. The fore-wings have a 
longitudinal, slightly curved black line, extending from a little beyond lli<- base, almost as far ax the 
termen below the apex; above this line there is a black dot at about one-third; the apex of the 
fore-wing is slightly hooked, and there is a row of minute black dots on the termen of both fore- 
and hind-wings. 

The perfect insect appears in January. According to Mr. Fereday it frequents 
the plains near Christchurch, and towards the foot of Mount Hutt. 

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

Family 4.— ORTHOSTIXID^E. 

" Hind-wings with vein 5 fully developed, rising from about middle of transverse vein, 8 
connected with upper margin of cell by an oblique bar towards base." — (Meyrick.) (See Plate II., 
figs. 46 and 47.) 

This small family is represented in New Zealand by a single genus only. The 
peculiar oblique bar connecting vein 8 with the cell towards base, combined with 
the development of vein 5, distinguish it from all other families. If there is any 
chance of confusion with those forms of Hydriomenidce in which vein 8 is also 
connected by a bar (though in them the bar is placed beyond and not before the 
middle of cell), the absence of the characteristic areole of the Hydrioinenidce will 
be a further test. 

Genus 1. -EPIRKANTHIS, Hb. 

"Face with appressed scales. Tongue developed. Palpi very short or moderate, porrected 
or subascendine;, rough-scaled. Antennae in male evenly ciliated. Thorax rather hairy beneath. 
Femora glabrous; posterior tibiae with all spurs present. Fore-wings with vein 10 anastomosing 
with 9, 11 anastomosing with l'l and 10 before 9. Hind-wings with and 7 separate." 
— (Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 46 and 47, neuration of Epirranthis alectoraria ; fig. 48, head 
of ditto.) 

Represented in New Zealand by two species. 



80 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

EPIBEANTHIS ALECTORAEIA, Walk. 

(Lyrcea alectoraria, Walk. 259; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 95. Aspilates (?) primata, Walk. 
1076; Butl., Cat. pi. iii. 4. Endropia mixtaria, Walk. 1506; ButL, Cat. pi. iii. 5. Amilapis (?) acroiaria, Felcl. 
cxxiii. 6. Lyrcea varians, ButL, Cist. Ent. ii. 196. Ploseria alectoraria, Hdsn., Manual N. Z. Ent. 86.) 
(Plate VIII., figs. 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, and 47, varieties ; Plate III., fig. 24, larva.) 

This species has occurred in tolerable abundance at many localities in both the North 
and the South Islands. It is probably generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is from 1 inch to 1J inches. The wings range in colour from pale 
yellow to dark orange-hrown, dark reddish-brown, or even dull brown, with innumerable intermediate 
tints. There is often a central transverse line reaching from the costa of the fore-wing to the dorsum 
of the hind-wing. Many of the varieties are speckled with darker colour; others have irregular 
yellow patches, generally situated on the fore-wings just below the apex and on the dorsum near the 
base ; there are often two white dots near the apex of the fore- wings. 

Most of the varieties closely resemble the varied hues of fading leaves. In many of 
the forms greyish speckled marks occur on various parts of the wings, no doubt imitating 
the irregular patches of mould which are often present on dead leaves. One very well- 
marked variety is bright yellow, with the costa rosy and two large white-centred rosy spots 
arranged transversely on each wing. (See Plate VIII., fig. 47.) All the specimens of 
this insect are so extremely variable that it is almost impossible to adequately describe 
the species. The apex of the fore-wing is always very acute ; the termen is bowed just 
below the apex, and is furnished with slight indentations of variable depth. The termen 
of the hind-wing is also furnished with variable indentations. 

The egg is oval and much flattened above. AVhen first laid it is pale green in colour, but 
becomes dull olive-green as the embryo develops. 

The young larva is very pale green, with the head brownish -yellow. At this early stage its 
colouring already completely harmonises with that of the under side of the leaves of its food-plants, 
Pittosporum eugenioides and P. tenuifoUiim. 

The full-grown larva is very robust, and about 1 inch in length. Its colour is pale green, with 
numerous yellow dots and a series of diagonal yellow stripes on each segment ; there is, in addition, 
a series of broad crimson blotches on the back and a small crimson flap projecting from the end of the 
terminal segment ; the prolegs and spiracles are also crimson. 

The remarkable shape and colouring of this caterpillar, in conjunction with the 
peculiar attitude assumed when at rest, affords it complete protection, causing it to 
resemble, in the closest possible manner, one of the buds of its food-plant. These larva' 
grow very slowly, and probably occupy three or four months in attaining their full size. 
They are very sluggish in their habits. The pupa is greenish-brown in colour. It is 
enclosed in a cocoon, constructed of two or three leaves of the food-plant, fastened 
together with silk. The insect remains in this condition for three weeks or a month. 
The moth first appears about the end of October, and is met with until the middle of 
March. It frequents forest, where it is occasionally dislodged from amongst the under- 
growth. It is also found in the evening on the flowers of the white rata. It is, however, 
rather uncertain in its appearance, being much commoner in some years than in others. 

EPIERANTHIS HEMIPTERAEIA, Gn. 

(Hemerophila hemipteraria, Gn. ix. 220, pi. vi. 2. Xyridacma hemipteraria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. [nst. 
xx. 60. Ploseria hemipteraria, Hdsn., Manual N. Z. Ent. 85.) 
(Plate VIII., fig. 48 $ , 49 ? ; Plate III., fig. J9, larva.) 
This remarkable-looking species has occurred in the North Island, at Auckland and 
Wellington. At present it has not been observed in the South Island. 



II. — THE NOTODONTINA. 81 

The expansion of the wings is from Lf to L| inches. All the wings are pale ochreous-brown, 
with a variable number of minute black dots ; there are four or five oblique, wavy brown transverse 
lines on both fore- and hind-wings, the central and terminal lines being often slightly darker than the 
others; there is always a black dot in the middle of the lure-wine, and a shaded spot near the terrnen 
below the apex. The apex of the hind-wing is very pointed and projects downwards ; the almost 
straight terrnen has a series of prominent projections. 

This species varies much in the intensity of the markings, and in the number of the 
black dots on both the fore- and hind-wines. The peculiar outline of its hind-wings, 
however, distinguishes it from any other species with which I am acquainted. 

The larva feeds on veronicas in September and October. 

Its length when full grown is about 1 inch. Some larvae are green, with a broad bluish dorsal 
line, and two tine yellow lateral lines. Others are brown, with a dull yellow dorsal line. 

During the daytime these caterpillars firmly clasp the stem of their food-plant with 
their prolegs, and hold the rest of their body rigidly out from the branch. In this position 
they are very inconspicuous, and may readily be mistaken for young leaves or twigs. At 
night they become much more active, and may then be seen walking about and feeding. 

The pupa is rather robust, with a sharp spine at its extremity. Its colour is pale 
olive-brown, with the wing-cases and sides of the abdomen pinkish. It is not enclosed in 
any cocoon, hut is merely concealed amongst the dead leaves and rubbish around the stem 
of the veronica. The insect remains in this state for less than a month, so that the 
protection of a cocoon wo'uld appear to be unnecessary. 

The moth appears in December and January. It usually frequents gardens and other 
cultivated places, probably on account of the number of veronicas that are often growing 
in such situations. It is also attracted by blossoms and by light, but is not a common 
species. The colouring and wing-outline of this moth cause it to very closely resemble 
a dead leaf, especially when resting amongst foliage or on the ground. This insect may 
be occasionally noticed abroad on mild evenings in the middle of winter ; the females 
probably hibernate and deposit their eggs early in the spring. 

Family 5.— SELIDOSEMID^E. 

"Hind-wines with vein 5 imperfect (not tubular) or obsolete, 6 and 7 usually separate, 8 usually 
obsoletely connected with upper margin of cell near base, approximated to near middle." (See 
Plate II., rigs. 51 to 64.) 

" A very large family, equally common throughout all regions. It varies consider- 
ably in superficial appearance, and is also remarkable for the variability of structure of 
veins 10 and 11 of the fore-wings in many (not all) species. Imago with body slender 
to rather stout ; fore-wings broad to rather elongate, triangular ; posterior tibia- of male 
often enlarged and enclosing an expansible tuft of hairs. The structure termed the 
fovea is a circular impression on the lower surface of the fore-wings above the dorsum 
near the base, usually placed about the origin of the basal fork of 1/* ; it is generally 
confined to the male, and is often sub-hyaline, sometimes surmounted by a small 
thickened gland ; it may possibly be a scent-producing organ. It is strictly confined 
to that branch of which Selidosema is the type, but is not invariably present there. 

"Ovum subcylindrical or elongate-ovate, more or less reticulated, sometimes ribbed. Larva 
elongate, more or less slender, with few hairs, without developed prolegs on segments 7, 8, and 
usually 9 ; often remarkably like a twig of its food-plant. Pupa subterranean, or in a slight cocoon 
above ground." — (Meyrick.) 

11 



82 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

Of this extensive family we have nine genera represented in New Zealand : — 
1. Selidosema. 4. Sestea. 7. Azelina. 

'2. Hybeenia. 5. Gonophylla. 8. Ipana. 

3. Chalastka. 6. Deepanodes. 9. Declana. 

Genus 1.— SELIDOSEMA, Hb. 

" Face with appressed or shortly projecting scales. Tongue developed. Antennae in male bi- 
pectinated, towards apex simple. Palpi rough-scaled. Thorax sometimes crested posteriorly, hairy 
beneath. Femora nearly glabrous ; posterior tibia? in male dilated. Fore-wings in male with fovea ; 
vein 10 sometimes connected with 9, 11 sometimes out of 10 near base only, or if separate, sometimes 
anastomosing with 12." — (Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 59 and 60, neuration of Selidosema dejectaria.) 

This genus is universally distributed and of considerable extent. We have nine 
species in New Zealand. 

SELIDOSEMA FENEEATA, Feld. 
(Rhyparia fencrata, Feld. exxxi. 7. Zylobam fenerata, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 498. Meyr., Trans. N. Z. 

Inst. xvi. 97.) 
(Plate VIII. , fig. 50 $, 51 2.) 

This species is common, and generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about D inches. The fore-wings of the male are very pale 
ochreous-brown ; there is a double jagged transverse line near the base, a single jagged line a little 
before the middle, and a double one a little beyond the middle ; an almost continuous jagged line near 
the termen. The hind-wings are very pale ochreous, almost white; their outline is peculiar ; the 
dorsum is very short, the termen very long, first oblique and then rounded with a small projection 
midway between the apex and the tornus. The female has the fore-wings pale grey, and the hind- 
wings dull white ; the markings resemble those of the male, but the outline of the hind-wing is 
of the usual form. 

This insect varies slightly in the depth of its colouring. It may be distinguished 
from the allied species by the peculiar outline of the hind-wings in the male, and by 
the pale grey colouring of the female. 

The perfect insect appears from October till March and is very common. It has 
a great liking for the faded fronds of tree-ferns, from which specimens may often be 
dislodged. Both sexes are very abundant at various blossoms during the evening, and 
are also attracted by light. The female is sometimes observed in the winter months, 
and probably hibernates. 

SELIDOSEMA EUDIATA, Walk. 

(Cidaria rudiata, Walk. 1420. Boarmia astrapia, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 218. Boarmia rudiata, 

Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst, xxiii. 101.) 

(Plate IX., fig. 1<? , 2? .) 

This species is fairly common in the neighbourhood of Wellington, and has 
occurred at Dunedin, and at Stewart Island. It is probably generally distributed 
throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is H inches, of the female If inches. The fore-wings 
are very pale ochreous-brown ; there are two interrupted jagged transverse lines near the base ; a 
single very indistinct line in the middle ; a double, nearly continuous jagged transverse line beyond 
the middle; a double jagged line near the termen completely interrupted in the middle; there is 
generally a dark patch on the termen just below the apex of the wing. The hind-wings are very 
pale ochreous. There is a series of black dots on the termen of both fore-wings and hind-wings, 
and the termen of the hind-wing is slightly indented. 

This species varies a good deal in size ; the specimens from Stewart Island are 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 83 

considerably larger and have more distinct markings, than those found in the vicinity 
of Wellington. 

The larva is cylindrical, of even thickness throughout, and almost uniform dull 
greyish-brown in colour, occasionally with a series of small oblong black marks on 
segments 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. It feeds on the young leaves and buds of the ake ake 
{Vivaria traversii). It is extremely difficult to find as it almost exactly resembles 
a twig of its food-plant. It is full grown about April. 

The pupa is concealed in the earth. 

The perfect insect appears from October till March. It seems to prefer cultivated 
districts, and is generally observed at rest on garden fences or tree-trunks. It also 
frequents flowers in the evening. 

SELIDOSEMA SUAVIS, Butl. 

{Pseudocoremia swam, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 497. Pachycnemia mitata, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 501. 
Pseudocoremia lupinata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 98. Boarmia suavis, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. 
xxiii - 101.) (Plate IX., fig. 3 3 , 4 ? .) 

This species is very common and generally distributed throughout the country, 
and lias occurred as far south as Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 j inches. The fore-wings of the male are dull yellowish-brown, 
speckled with black; there are two curved transverse lines near the base; a very obscure line near 
the middle, darker on the costa ; two doubly curved lines beyond the middle, slightly darker on 
the dorsum; and two very faint jagged lines near the termen. The hind-wings are pale ochreous, 
tinged with brown near the termen. The female has narrower wings, shorter body, and is usually 
duller in colour than the male. 

This insect is rather variable, some specimens of both sexes being much darker 
than others; but all the forms may usually be recognised by their dull speckled 
colouring and absence of conspicuous markings. 

The larva feeds on the white rata (M. scandens) and the tawa (Beilschmiedia tawa). 

Its length when full grown is about lg inches. The upper surface is dark reddish-brown with 
numerous blackish stripes and white markings, which give it a very variegated appearance; the 
under side is pale green ; there are two small tubercles on the back of the eighth segment. 

The pupa is concealed amongst refuse on the ground, the larva constructing no 
cocoon before changing. 

The perfect insect appears from October till April, and may often be observed 
on mild days in the middle of winter. It is common in forest districts, where it is 
usually seen resting on the tree-trunks, in which situation its colouring must afford 
it efficient protection from many enemies. 

SELIDOSEMA HUMILLIMA, n. sp. 
(Plate IX., fig. 5.) 
This inconspicuous-looking insect has occurred at Wellington. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is about 1^ inches. The fore-wings are dull 
yellowish-brown; there are three short oblique dark brown stripes on the costa, inclined very much 
towards the termen ; the first of these stripes is distinctly double, and the second and third 
partially so ; there is an indistinct brown mark just below the apex, several slender faint streaks 
on the veins near the middle of the wing, and a very distinct brown shading on the dorsum. 
The hind-wings are very pale ochreous. 

This species may be readily distinguished from the other species of the genus 
by its small size and by the obliquity of the costal stripes. In S. humillima 
the costal markings slope very rapidly from the base towards the termen ; in the 



84 NEW ZEALAND MACEO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

other allied species these markings are but slightly inclined, and in some cases slope 
in the reverse direction. 

The perfect insect appears from December till March. It frequents the immediate 
neighbourhood of Wellington, but is not a common species. At present I am only 
acquainted with the male insect. 

SELIDOSEMA PRODUCTATA, Walk. 

(Larentia productata, Walk. 1197 ('.'). Selidosema pungata, Feld. cxxxi. '23. Selidosema (?) fragosata, 

Feld. cxxxi. 29. Zylobara productata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 98.) 

(Plate IX., figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 $ varieties, 11, 12, 13, and 14 5 ditto; Plate III., 
fig. '22, larva.) 

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout both the 
North and South Islands. It has also occurred at Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is lj| inches, of the female li inches. 

The fore-wings vary from pale yellowish-brown to rich chocolate -brown ; there are two 
curved transverse lines near the base, generally enclosing a paler stripe between them; next a 
broad dark central area ; then a wavy paler transverse line, usually followed by a very much 
paler irregular band, generally formed by two partially disconnected patches, one on the costa 
and one on the dorsum ; there is a jagged, whitish, transverse line near the termen, always 
broken in the middle, and often shaded with black towards the base of the wing. The hind- 
wings are ochreous, speckled with brown towards the dorsum ; there is usually a brown central dot. 

This is an extremely variable insect. In some specimens there are very extensive 
white patches on the wings, whilst in others the colouring is almost uniform rich 
brown, and the characteristic markings can only be detected with difficulty. It may, 
however, be distinguished from the allied species by the interrupted pale jagged 
transverse line near the termen and by the absence of greenish colouring. 

The eggs are oval with the surface honeycombed; they are pale green in colour. 

The young larva, when first hatched, is much attenuated, light reddish-brown with a broad 
pale lateral stripe, and a few bristles. The full-grown larva measures about li inches in length; 
it is rather slender and has a large hump on the sixth segment. Its colour is dark reddish- 
brown, mottled and striped with dull white and greenish. 

It feeds on the white rata (Metrosidos scandens). During the day it firmly grasps 
a stem of its food-plant with its prolegs, holding the rest of its body out from the 
branch in a perfectly straight and rigid position. When in this attitude it so exactly 
resembles a twig, that, even in the case of captive specimens, it is often a matter 
of the greatest difficulty to find a caterpillar amongst the branches. Several times I 
have even caught hold of a larva, thinking it to be a twig, so perfect is the 
resemblance. At night these larva? become much more active, and by the aid of a 
lantern they may then be seen busily walking about and feeding. 

The pupa, is enclosed in a slight cocoon about two inches below the surface of 
the earth. The larva' of the autumnal brood remain in this condition during the 
winter, but in the case of the spring and summer broods the pupa state only 
occupies a few weeks. 

The moth appears from November till May. It is very common in forest 
legions, and may be observed resting on the trunks of the trees, its pale yellow 
hind-wings being completely concealed by the mottled brown fore-wings. In this 
position the insect is almost invisible, and the protection afforded by its colouring 
is at once apparent. In the autumn evenings it is often very abundant at the 
blossoms of the white rata. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 85 

SELI] x )SE MA APIXTABOHA, Meyr. 

(Selidosema aristarcha, Meyr,, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxiv. 216.) 

(Plate IX., fig. 17 S, 18 <? ; Plate IIP, tig. 17, larva.) 

Of this fine species only about a dozen specimens have hitherto been captured, 
all of which have occurred in the immediate vicinity of Wellington. It is conse- 
quently at present a rarity, but future collectors will probably find the insect in 
many other parts of the country. 

The expansion of the wings varies from 1{ to U inches. The fore-wings are light 
ochreous-hrown ; there is a small white-edged brown spot near the base; two oblique curved 
brown transverse lines enclosing between them a white space towards the dorsum ; a short 
stripe on the costa, near the middle, edged with white towards the base of the wing; a doubly 
curved transverse hue beyond the middle, finely edged with whit.' towards the base of the wing; 
there is also a short white-edged brown stripe extending from the apex of the wing to the 
last-named transverse line, the two lines enclosing between them a small pale triangular area; 
there are five short longitudinal brown lines running from the termen to the outermost of the 
transverse lines, two of them being tipped with white towards the base of the wing. The hind- 
wings are dull ochreous-brown, with two very faint brown transverse lines towards the dorsum, 
and several whitish spots and one brown spot near the tornus. The female is a little darker in 
colour than the male. 

This insect varies slightly in size. 

The larva feeds on Cyathea dealbata (tree-fern) in September. Its colour is dull 
reddish-brown with an irregular brownish-black blotch on the side of each segment, 
and a dark brown dorsal line. It is very sluggish in its habits. 

The pupa is concealed amongst moss, Ac, on the surface of the ground, the 
insect remaining in this state for about six weeks. 

The moth appears from September till March, and frequents dense forests. It 
has been dislodged from its food-plant in the daytime, and has also been taken on 
the flowers of the white rata in the evening. 

SELIDOSEMA MELINATA, Feld. 

{Numeria iiivliiiata, Feld. cxxix. 9. Pseudocoremia indistincta, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1877, 394, 

pi. xliii. 8. Pseudocoremia melinata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 99.) 

(Plate IX., fig. 15 $, 16 ? .) 

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 11 inches, of the female \\ inches. The fore-wings 
are dull greenish-grey, with black markings ; there is a transverse line near the base ; another near the 
middle, followed by two broken irregular lines, then a broader, paler area sometimes white, followed 
by a series of jagged pale markings shaded with black. The hind-wings are ochreous mottled with 
pale brown near the dorsum : there is a series of black dots on the termen of both fore- and hind- 
wings. 

This species is extremely variable, but may always be recognised by its greenish 
tinge, and the absence of indentations on the termen of both fore- and hind-wings. 

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie, is about § inch long ; dull green with 
darker longitudinal striations. It may be beaten from New Zealand broom {Car- 
micJnclid) in February. There must be some other commoner food-plant, as the 
moth is found in many localities where the New Zealand broom does not occur. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and is generally very abundant 
in all wooded districts. It is also common in birch forests on the mountain sides, 
where it may be taken at altitudes of from 3,000 to 1,000 feet above the sea-level. 



86 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

In the lowlands I have observed as many as half a dozen specimens on a single tree- 
trunk. Whilst resting in this situation they are very inconspicuous, the colouring of 
the fore-wings harmonizing perfectly with the insect's surroundings, and the pale- 
coloured hind-wings being then entirely concealed by the upper pair. In connection 
with this fact it is very interesting to notice that in all those cases where the hind- 
wings are exposed to view during repose, they are protectively coloured in a similar 
manner to the fore-wings. It will be observed that the two following species of 
Selidosema exhibit protective colouring on both pairs of wings, these being invariably 
exposed when the insects are at rest. 

SELIDOSEMA DEJECTAKIA. 

(Boarmia dejectaria, Walk. 394. Boarmia attracta, Walk. 394. Boarmia exprompta, Walk. 395. 
Tcphrosia patularia, Walk. 422; Butl., Cat., pi. iii. 8. Tephrosia scriptaria, Walk. 422. Scotosia crcbinata, 
Walk. 1358. Scotosia stigmaticata, Walk. 1359. Scotosia lignosata, Walk. 1361. Gnophos pannularia, 
Gn., E. M. M. v. 42. Scotopteryx maoriata, Feld. cxxvi. 4. Hemerophila (?) sulpitiata, Feld. cxxvi. 7. 
Hemerophila caprimulgata, Feld. cxxvi. 12. Boarmia dejectaria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 100.) 

(Plate IX., figs. 19, 20, 21 and 22 3 varieties, 23 and '24 ? ditto ; Plate III., fig. 12, larva.) 

This large insect is very common, and generally distributed throughout the 
country. 

The expansion of the wings is from 1J to 2 inches. The fore-wings vary from pale ochreous to 
very dark rich brown ; there is an oblique transverse line near the base, often enclosing a darker basal 
area ; a small dark brown spot in the middle of the wing surrounded by a ring ; a very oblique, wavy, 
transverse line beyond the middle, often double towards the dorsum, and several irregular markings 
on the termen ; there is often a white spot on the middle of the termen, and a pale blotch on the 
apex of the wing. The hind-wings resemble the fore-wings in colour ; there are two obscure trans- 
verse lines near the base ; generally forming a dark basal area ; a wavy line near the middle, and a 
strongly shaded line near the termen. The termen of both the wings is indented, the depth of the 
indentations varying greatly in different specimens. 

This insect is very variable, but its large size and oblique transverse lines suffice 
to distinguish it from any of the other allied species. 

The larva feeds on a great variety of plants, mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus), white rata 
(Metrosideros scandens), Solarium avicidare, fuchsia {Fuchsia excorticata), and Pennantia 
corymbosa, being amongst the number. The caterpillar may often be recognised by a 
large hump, which is situated on each side of the third segment. Its colouring appears 
to be so entirely influenced by its surroundings that a description is impossible. For 
instance, larva; taken from the pale green foliage of the mahoe resemble in colour the 
twigs of that plant ; others captured feeding on the white rata are dark reddish-brown, 
those from Solarium aviculare are purplish slate-colour, whilst those from the fuchsia 
are pale olive-green tinged with brown, like the sprouting twigs. 

The pupa is enclosed in a slight cocoon situated about two inches below the surface 
of the ground. Those larvae which become full grown in the autumn remain as pupa' 
during the winter, but the summer broods only remain in the pupa state a few weeks. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It has a great partiality 
for resting with outspread wings on the walls of sheds and outhouses, where it is 
frequently noticed by the. most casual observer. It is very common inmost situations, 
and may be taken in large numbers at sugar, light, or blossoms, during the whole of 
the summer. Its extreme abundance and great variability, in both the larval and imago 
states, would render it a good subject for a, series of experiments, resembling those 
conducted by Messrs. Poulton and Merriiield on several allied European species. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. fi7 

SELIDOSEMA PANAGEATA, Walk. 

(Scotosia panagratd, Walk. 1360. Angerona menanaria, Walk. 1500. Epirrhanthis (?) antipodaria, 
Fekl. cxxvi. 3. Hyperythra desiccata, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. -195. Hyperythra arenacea, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 
495. Barsine panagrata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 100.) 

(Plate IX., figs. 25, 'JO, '27, and '2s j varieties, 29 and 30 ? ditto.) 

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout the country. 
It has occurred as far south as Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is from \\ to Y\ inches. The fore-wings of the male vary from pale 
yellowish-white to rich brown or dark brownish-black ; there is a jagged transverse line near the base ; 
a large black or white spot in the middle of the wing ; a doubly curved transverse line beyond the 
middle, then a very jagged transverse line, followed by several paler markings, and an obscure line 
parallel with the termen, The hind-wings are paler in colour ; there is a slightly curved transverse 
line near the base ; a jagged line near the middle, and a very faint line beyond the middle. The 
termen of both fore- and hind-wings is slightly indented. The female varies from pale ochreous to 
dark slate-colour; the markings resemble those of the male, but the termen of the wings is more 
indented. 

This species is so extremely variable that a more detailed description would be 
useless ; its numerous forms may, however, be at once recognised by the unbroken 
jagged transverse lines of both fore- ami hind-wings. 

The larva is quite as variable as the perfect insect. When very young it is bright 
green, with a conspicuous white dorsal line; as ago advances the caterpillar becomes 
dark olive-brown, sometimes striped with paler brown or green, whilst many specimens 
retain the green colouring throughout the whole of their lives. The favourite food- 
plant is the kawa-kawa (Piper excelsum), which the larvas voraciously devour, 
thus causing the riddled appearance which the leaves of that plant almost 
invariably present. These larva? often select a forked twig to rest in, where they lie 

curled round, with the head and tail close together. Other f I-plants are Aristotelia 

racemosa and Myrtus bnllata. Those caterpillars found on the latter plant are strongly 
tinged with pink, and are consequently very inconspicuous amongst the young shoots, 
where they generally feed. The burrows of the larva- of Hejrialus virescens are frequently 
utilised by the caterpillars, which feed on the Aristotelia, as convenient retreats during 
the winter. When full-grown these caterpillars descend to the ground and construct 
loose cocoons of silk and earth on the under sides of fallen leaves. The moth usually 
emerges in about a month's time, but the autumnal larva.' either hibernate or remain 
in the pupa state throughout the winter. 

The perfect insect appears from October till April. It frequents forest and is 
extremely common. It also occurs in great abundance on the white rata blossoms in 
the autumn, and specimens may be occasionally seen even in the depth of winter. 

Genus '2.— HYBEENIA, Latr. 

" Face with appressed scales or short rough scales. Tongue developed or weak. Antennae in male 
bi-pectinated, pectinations sometimes short and terminating in fascicles of cilia, apex simple. Palpi 
shortly rough-scaled. Thorax with small triangular anterior crest, hairy beneath. Femora glabrous ; 
posterior tibia? in male not dilated. Fore-wings in male without fovea ; vein 10 sometimes out of 9, 
sometimes anastomosing or connected with 9, 11 sometimes out of 10, usually anastomosing with 
or running into 12, rarely absent. Female semiapterous or apterous." — (Meyrick.) 

We have one species. 



88 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. ■ 

HYBEENIA INDOCILIS, Walk. 

(Zermizinga indocilisaria, Walk. 1530. Hybernia boreophilaria, Gn., E. M. M. v. 61. Hybernia indocilis, 

Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 97.) 

(Plate IX., fig. 31 <?,32 ? .) 

This species has occurred plentifully in the neighbourhood of Christchurch. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 14- inches, of the female J inch. All the wings 
are pale grey, speckled with darker grey. The fore-wings have four obscure wavy transverse lines .• the 
first near the base, the second and third near the middle, rather close together, and the fourth near the 
termen, much interrupted; there is a series of black dots on the termen. The hind-wings have two 
very faint transverse lines, and a series of black terminal dots; the termen of the hind-wings is 
slightly scalloped. The cilia of all the wings are grey. The female has the wings extremely small and 
quite useless for flight ; in colour and markings they resemble those of the male, except that the 
transverse lines are black and sharply defined. 

The perfect insect appears from July to January. Mr. E. W. Fereday states that 
the male is found plentifully at rest on the bare ground, amongst Leptospermum, and 
the female on the stems. 

Described and figured from specimens kindly given to me by Mr. Fereday. 

Genus 3.— CHALASTEA, Walk. 

"Face with a slight cone of scales. Palpi rather long, porrected, roughly scaled. Antennae in 
male bi-pectinated. Fore-wings with vein 6 from below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 very 
shortly touching 9, 11 free, 12 very shortly touching 11. Hind-wings normal." — (Meyrick.) (Plate 
II., figs. 51 and 52.) 

This genus is represented by one species only. 

I have made a very careful examination of several denuded specimens of Chalastra 
pelurgata, and I find that in the fore-wings veins 9, 10, and 11 rise almost from a point. 
Vein 10 afterwards approaches closely to 9, but does not actually touch it, and con- 
sequently does not form a true areole. Vein 12 also appears to me to be free. 

CHALASTEA PELUEGATA, Walk. 

(Chalastra pelunjata, Walk. 1430. Itama cinerascens, Feld. cxxxi. 1. Stratocleis streptophora, Meyr., 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 106.) 

(Plate IX., figs. 33 and 34 J varieties, 35 and 36 ? ditto; Plate III., fig. 21, larva.) 

This species is very abundant in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has also 
occurred at Palmerston North, and is probably common throughout the whole of the 
North Island. In the South Island it has been taken in the Otira Gorge, and at Dunedin, 
Otara and Invercargill. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings of the male vary from pale 
orange-brown to dull yellowish-brown ; there is a doubly curved dark brown transverse line near the 
base; a broad straight line a little before the middle ; a very strongly curved line a little beyond the 
middle, and a less strongly curved line near the termen, often composed of a series of triangular 
white ilnts edged with dark brown; all these lines are much stronger on the costa, and are sometimes 
almost obliterated elsewhere. The hind-wings are pale yellow, with several brown-edged white spots 
at the tornus, and an indistinct line parallel to the termen. The apex of the fore-wing is consider- 
ably produced, and there is a large rounded projection on the termen. The hind-wings have several 
small projections on the termen. In the female the fore-wings are pale yellow or orange, the trans- 
verse lines and white spots are usually more conspicuous, and the projections on the termen of the 
fore- and hind-wings larger. 

This is a very variable insect, especially in the male, some specimens of which sex 
are very much clouded and dappled with dark brown both on the fore- and hind-wings. 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 89 

Many of these darker forms might readily be taken for distinct species, when compared 
with the pale orange-brown variety, but a good series of specimens presents 
numerous intermediate forms which completely connect these extreme varieties. The 
females also vary, but are never as dark as the males. 

The larva feeds on Todea hymenophylloides, a fern which grows in shady places in 
the depths of the forest. The length of the caterpillar when full grown is about 1^ inches. 
It is very variable ; some specimens are dull brown, with a row of green or pale brown 
lunate spots down each side, and a dark brown line down the back. Others are bright 
green, with a diagonal reddish-brown stripe on the side of each segment; the segmental 
divisions are reddish-brown, intersected by numerous very minute whitish lines. 

The pupa is enclosed in a loose cocoon on the surface of the ground. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March, and is very common in forest 
regions. It may often be dislodged from the dead fronds surrounding the stems of tree- 
ferns, and is also met with in great abundance towards the end of summer on the blossoms 
of the white rata. 

Genus 4.— SESTEA, Walk. 

" Pace smooth. Palpi short, rough-haired beneath, porrected. Antennae in male stout, serrate, 
shortly ciliated. Fore-wings with vein f> from below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 rising out of 
9 above origin, anastomosing again shortly with 9, 11 anastomosing shortly with 10, 12 anastomosing 
shortly with 11. Hind-wings normal." — (Meyrick.) (Plate II., (ig. 53, neuration of fore-wing of 
Sestra humeraria.) 

We have two species in New Zealand. 

It will be seen that my figure of the neuration of Sestra humeraria does not 
precisely agree with Mr. Meyrick's description. The differences in the results arrived 
at are probably due to the variability in structure of veins 10, 11 (and 12), mentioned 
when dealing with the characters of the entire family. Similar slight discrepancies also 
occur in connection with the three following genera. 

SESTEA HUMERARIA, Walk. 

(Macaria humeraria, Walk. 910. Lozogramma obtusaria, ib. '.is.;,. Cidaria obtruncata, ib. 1421. Sestra 

fusijilagiata, ib. 1751. Amastris encausta, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 105. Sestra humeraria, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Plate X., tigs. 1 ami -1 varieties; Plate IIP, fig. 20, larva.) 

This species is very common, and generally distributed throughout both the North 
and the South Islands ; it also occurs plentifully at Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings is 1^ inches. The fore-wings are pule plum-colour; there is an 
indistinct, curved, brownish transverse line near the base; a straight dark brown line across the 
middle, and a curved series of blackish dots beyond the middle ; the apex is pointed, and the termen 
has a strong projection a little above the middle. The hind-wings are ochreous, with a series <>( 
minute brownish dots across the middle. 

This is a variable species. The fore-wings are often much clouded with rich brown, 
and in some specimens scarcely a trace of the original purplish colour remains ; the 
central straight transverse line is often absent, and the other lines are frequently very 
indistinct, except on the costa ; the dots on the hind-wings are also often absent, and 
occasionally specimens are met with in which all the wings are almost white. 

The larva is rather elongate, dull yellowish-brown or greenish-brown ; there is a very broad dark 
brown dorsal line, and several wavy lateral lines ; the prolegs are black, the spiracles are also black ; 
there is a slight hump on the posterior edge of each of the last six segments, the hump on the penulti- 
mate segment being considerably larger than the others. The length of the caterpillar when full 
grown is about 1 inch. 

12 



90 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

It feeds on Pterin incisa, a beautiful pale green fern, attaining a height of four feet or 
more, and growing in open situations in the forest. This fern is especially abundant on 
old decaying logs situated amongst light brushwood. When disturbed these larva' 
immediately drop to the ground and coil themselves up. In this situation they are very 
inconspicuous, as their colouring so closely resembles that of the faded fronds or steins of 
the fern. 

The pupa is buried in the earth about two inches below the surface, the insect 
remaining in this state during the winter months. 

The moth first appears about September, and continues in gre; L abundance until 
the end of March or beginning of April. It frequents forest, and is noticed most 
commonly in the neighbourhood of its food-plant. There are probably several broods 
in the course of a year. 

SESTBA FLEXATA, Walk. 

(Cidaria flexata, Walk. 1421.) 

(Plate IX., fig. 37.) 

This species has occasionally occurred in the neighbourhood of Wellington. I have 
no records of its capture elsewhere, but expect it will be found to be generally distributed. 

The expansion of the wings is about LJ inches. The fore-wings are bright orange-red; there is 
a very faint transverse line near the base, darker on the costa ; a dark red oblong mark on the costa 
near the middle ; and a faint transverse line beyond the middle, also darker on the costa. The hind- 
wings are bright ochreous-yellow, with the cilia orange. 

This insect varies considerably in the intensity of its colouring. It has long been 
considered as merely a variety of tiestra lmmeraria, but as I have not observed any 
intermediate forms, although the two insects frequently occur together, I think it may 
be regarded for the present as a distinct species. 

The perfect insect appears from October till December, and is found in the same 
localities as S. humeraria. 

Genus 5.— GONOPHYLLA, Meyr. 

" Pace shortly rough-haired. Palpi moderate, arched, ascending, shortly rough-scaled, terminal 
joint short. Antennae in male rather stout, pubescent. Coxa' and femora densely rough-haired 
beneath. Fore-wings with vein from below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, 10 shortly touching 9, 
11 separate, 12 free. Hind-wings normal."— (Meyrick.) (Elate IE, figs. 63 and 64, neuration of 
Gonophylla nelsonaria.) 

Of this genus we have but one species. 

GONOEHYLLA NELSONAKIA, Feld. 

(Gonodontis (?) nelsonaria, Feld. exxiii. 3. Gonodontis felix, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 389, pi. xlii. 10. 

Phyllodoce nelsonaria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 104. Gonophylla nelsonaria, ib. xviii. 184.) 

(Elate X., ties. 3 and 4 J varieties, 5 and 6 ? ditto.) 

This handsome insect is common in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has 

also occurred at Nelson and Dunedin, and is possibly generally distributed throughout 

the country. 

The expansion of the wine. j s 11 i nc hes. The fore-wings of the male are rich reddish- 
brown, mottled with darker; there are several small white marks on the costa; a black dot in 
the middle of the wm-, and an almost straight white transverse Hue beyond the middle; 
outside this line the wing is speckled with greyish-white. The hind-wings arc pale pinkish- 
brown; there is a black dot in the middle, and a curved blackish transverse hue a little beyond 
ih<' middle, being a continuation of the transverse line of the fore- wing ; beyond this line, and on 
the dorsum, there are generallv several small blackish markings. The female has the fore-wings 



IT.— THE NOTODONTINA. 91 

orange-red, speckled with darker; there is a doubly curved transverse line near the base, and an 
almost straight transverse line near the termen, both dark red; beyond the outer transverse line 
the wing is shaded with dark brown. The hind-wings are pale reddish-orange, with a curved 
blackish transverse line. In both sexes the apex of the fore-wing is projecting, and there is a 
strong angular projection on the termen a little before the middle: the termen of the hind-wing 
has several small projections. 

The variation of this insect is considerable, especially in the male. The ground 
colour of the fort 1 - wines often inclines to dull brown, or even dull yellowish-brown; 
the light and dark mottling, and the greyish markings near the termen are sometimes 
hardly visible ; there is often a yellowish blotch opposite the large angle in the 
termen of the fore-wing. The hind-wings also are very variable in their colouring. 
All these varieties exist in the female in a less pronounced degree. 

The perfect insect appears during the first week in February, and is generally 
over by the middle or end of March. The males are first noticed, the females not 
appearing until about a fortnight later. I have never taken this insect in the day- 
time, and in fact have never seen it except on the blossoms of the white rata, where, 
on fine evenings, it is often very abundant. As yet, however, Wellington is the only 
locality where 1 have met with it. 

Genus 6.— DEEPANODES, Gn. 

"Face with cone of scales. Palpi moderate, triangularly scaled, porrected. Antenna' in 
male moderate, simple. Fore-wines with vein 6 from below 9, 7 from below angle of areole, ID 
very shortly touching 9, 11 rising out of 1<> before angle of areole, 12 free. Hind-wings normal. 
(Plate EI., figs. <)1 ami 62 neuration of Drepanodes muriferata.) 

A characteristic South American genus. The single New Zealand species is very 
similar to some South American forms."-- (Me\ rick.) 

DEEPANODES MUEIFERATA, Walk. 
[Gargaphia muriferata, Walk. 1635. Panagra ephyraria, Walk. L761. ? Zanclognatha (?) cookaria, 
Feld. exxiii. 26. Zanclognatha (?) haastiaria, Feld. exxiii. 32. Drepanodes muriferata, Meyr., Trans. 
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 107.) 

(Plate X., figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 j varieties, 12 ? .) 

This species is very abundant in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has also 
been taken at Taranaki, Christchurch, Dunedin, Envercargill and Stewart Island, and 
is probably common and generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about H inches. All the wings of the male are yellowish- 
brown; there is a faint transverse line near the base, and a conspicuous darker transverse line 
running from a little before the apex of the fore-wing to the middle of the dorsum of the hind- 
wing; there is also a dark spot in the centre of the fore-wing, often containing two white dots. 
In the female, all the wings are slate-coloured; the transverse' lines are very faintly indicated, 
and the central dot of the fore-wing is reddish-brown. The apex of the fore-wing in each sex is 
conspicuously hooked, and the termen is bowed and sometimes has a very slight angle in the 
middle. 

Both sexes of this insect are very variable. In the male, the ground colour ranges 
from dingy-brown to bright orange-brown; the transverse lines differ much in 
intensity, and in some specimens the central area of the wings enclosed by them is 
much darker than either the basal or the marginal portions; occasionally there is a 
series of black markings between the outer transverse line and the termen of the 
fore-wings, whilst the transverse line itself is frequently edged with a band of paler 



92 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIPOPTERA. 

colouring. The female also varies in the ground colour and in the intensity of the 
transverse lines, which are sometimes marked by a few black dots. 

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie, is light grey, cylindrical, about f inch in length. 
It may be beaten in February from an undergrowth of Carpodetus and Aristotelia. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It frequents dense 
forest and is often very abundant. The colouring of the upper and under surfaces of 
its wings, and the shape of the wings are both very protective, giving the moth an 
exact resemblance to a dead leaf. When disturbed, the insect adds to this deception by 
keeping its wings quite motionless and rigidly extended, and allowing itself to fall 
through the air like a leaf. The resemblance in this case to the inanimate object is 
very perfect, and has no doubt enabled the moth to escape from many enemies. It 
is, in fact, an extremely interesting example of the simultaneous development of 
structure and instinct in a useful direction, through the agency of natural selection. 

This species is much attracted both by light and by blossoms. 

Genus 7.— AZELINA, Gn. 

" Face with some projecting hairs. Palpi rather long, ohliquely ascending, roughly 
scaled, attenuated. Antenna? in male thick, simple. Fore-wings with vein 6 from below 9, 7 
from below angle of areole, 10 very shortly touching 9, 11 separate, 12 free. Hind-wings normal. 

A genus of some extent, specially characteristic of South America. Guenee made a 
separate genus (Pohjyonia) of the New Zealand species, but without any point of distinction."— 
(Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 54 and 55, neuration of Azelina gallaria.) 

We have three species in New Zealand.* 

AZELINA GALLAKIA, Walk. 
Selenia gallaria, Walk. 185, Butl., Cat,, pi. iii. 6, 7. Euchlaena (?) palthidata, Feld. cxxxii. 21, 22. 
Stratoclc is gallaria, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 105 ; Azelina gallaria, xx. G2.) 
(Plate X., figs. 13 to 20 3 varieties, 21 to 23 ? ditto.) 
This species is very common in the neighbourhood of Wellington. It has also 
occurred at Palmerston North, Makotuku, Christchurch, Dunedin and Stewart Island. 
The expansion of the wings is 1+ inches. The fore-wings of the male vary from pale 
yellowish-brown to bright orange-brown, or reddish-brown; there is a wavy transverse line near 
the base, often obsolete except on the costa ; another wavy transverse line beyond the middle, 
also frequently obsolete except on the costa ; followed by a eery conspicuous straight line, often 
double, ninniny obliquely from a little before the apex to the dorsum ; outside this line, near the 
tornus, there are, in most specimens, two black spots or one large rust-red spot; the termen 
has two projections near the apex, inside which there is usually a darker blotch. The hind-wings 
are as variable in colour as the fore-wings ; there is one wavy line near the base, followed by an 
almost straight line, which is a continuation of the straight line of the fore-wing; beyond this 
line the ground colour is generally much darker; the termen itself has no projections. The female 
has broader wings and a shorter body than the male ; the ground colour and markings are 
similar to those of the male, but are usually more sombre, and the termen of both fori 1 - and hind- 
wings is furnished with a number of prominent projections. The under side of the wings in 
both sexes is beautifully marbled with yellow and reddish- brown, and several of the markings of 
the upper surface are faintly indicated. 

This species, as will be seen from the foregoing, is so extremely variable that a 
more detailed description would be useless, especially as the straight, oblique, 
transverse lines of both fore- and hind-wings will at once distinguish it from the two 
other members of the genus. 

* Mr. Meyrick now includes these three species in the genus Gonophylla. (See Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 387.) 



J I. —THE NOTODONTTNA. 93 

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It frequents dense forest, 
and is most abundant at the flowers of the white rata in the evening. Earlier in the 
year, before the rata blooms, it may sometimes lie taken at sugar. 

AZELINA OPHIOPA, Meyr. 
(Gonophylla ophiopa, .Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 387.) 
(Plate X., fig. 2(1 <?, '27 $ variety, 28 ? .) 

This species has occurred occasionally in the neighbourhood of Wellington, but 
has not yet been recorded from any other locality. 

Tin' expansion of the wings is f 1 inches. The fore-wings of the male are pale orange- 
brown ; there is a doubly toothed shaded transverse line near the base, the teeth being marked 
with two black spots; a conspicuous wavy transverse line runs from the apex to the dorsum, and 
is also marked with several black dots; the space between the two transverse lines is paler than 
the rest of the wing; there is a row of small black dots on the termen, and the termen itself has 
two small projections. The hind-wings are yellowish at the base, becoming orange beyond the 
middle; there is a faint brownish transverse line near the base, and a conspicuous wavy transverse 
line at the middle, marked by a series of black dots ; this central transverse line divides the yellowish 
ground colour of the basal area, from the orange ground colour of the rest of the wing. The 
female is larger and duller than the male; the fore-wings are yellowish drab, with the outer 
transverse line dull red ; there is a series of minute black dots on the termen ; the hind-wings 
are dull yellow, with a wavy central transverse line. 

The only variety of this species which has come under my observation is a 
male. In this specimen all the wings are pale yellowish-brown, with very broad 
black transverse lines. (See Plate X., fig. '27.) 

This insect is evidently closely allied to Azelina fortinata. It may, however, 
be distinguished from that species by the smaller projections on the termen of the 
fore- and hind-wings, and the dotted transverse lines of the male. 

The perfect insect appears from January till April. It is met with much later 
in the season than either of the two other species of Azelina. It frequents forest, and 
may be found on the blossoms of the white rata, but is, I think, the rarest of the genus. 

AZELIX T A FOETINATA, Gn. 

[Polygonia fortinata, Gn., E. M. M. v. 41. Gaustoloma (?) ziczac, Feld. exxxii. 4. Azelina fortinata, 

Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 10G.) 

(Plate X., tig. '24 3 , 25 ? .) 

This beautiful insect occurs occasionally in forests in both the North and the 

South Islands. It has been taken at Wellington, Nelson, Castle Hill, Akaroa, Mount 

Hutt, West Plains and Otara. 

The expansion of the wings is 1^ inches. The fore-wings of the male are pale orange-brown, 
with a doubly toothed black transverse line mar tie lias,, ami a less acutely toothed line beyond 
tlie middle ; between these there is a black mark on the costa ; the termen has two Large projections, 
and several smaller ones; between the outer transverse line and the termen there are several 
small black markings. The hind-wings are yellowish, clouded with orange-brown towards the 
termen, which also has several projections; there is a faint blackish line near tin- base, and a 
much stronger black line near the middle, starting from the dorsum and reaching about half-way 
across the wing. The female has the fore-wines dark brown, with the central area between the 
two transverse lines paler ; the hind-wings are also considerably darker than those in the male. 
This species varies a little in the depth of the ground colour, but not otherwise. 
The perfect insect appears in December, January and February. It frequents 
dense forest, and is generally disturbed from amongst ferns and undergrowth. 



94 NEW ZEALAND MAGBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

Genus 8.— IPANA, Walk. 

" Face roughly haired. Antennae in male simple, shortly ciliated. Palpi as in Declana. 
Thorax densely hairy above and beneath, with slight median crest. Abdomen in male elongate. 
Femora densely hairy; posterior tibiae in male short and much swollen, furnished on inner side 
with very large dense tuft of hairs. Fore-wings in male without fovea; veins 10 and 11 separate." 
— (Meyrick). 

We have one species in New Zealand. 

IPANA LEPTOMEEA, Walk. 

(Ipana leptom&ra, Walk., Noct. 1662.) 

(Plate X., figs. 29, 31, and 31a 3 varieties, 30 ? .) 

This species is common in the neighbourhood of Wellington, and I expect 
generally distributed throughout New Zealand ; but as there appears to have been 
some confusion in Mr. Meyrick's papers between it and the female of Declana 
junctilinea, I am unable to assign the localities there mentioned to either of the species. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 11 inches, of the female If inches. The fore-wings 
of the male are uniform pale brownish-ochreous, generally with two transverse series of minute 
darker brown dots parallel to the termen, and two or three similar dots near the middle of the 
wing. There is a series of very small parallel brown lines on the costa. The hind-wings are 
greyish-brown with two very deep indentations in the termen. The female has the fore-wings 
p a l e g re y j and the hind-wings darker grey; the markings and outline resemble the male. 

In a few male specimens I have observed four large black spots on the fore-wings, 
two near the base, and two near the termen. All these spots are sometimes joined 
together by a very broad black band, which extends along the whole of the central 
portion of the fore-wings. I have also a male specimen in which the fore-wings arc 
entirely marbled with dark grey. In the female two or three moderately large spots 
are occasionally present on the fore-wings, near the termen. All these varieties appear 
to be much scarcer than the typical form. 

The larva, which feeds on manuka (Leptospermum), has ten legs. It is rather 
slender, dark brown, mottled with grey and dull red. There are two large tubercles 
on the sides of the seventh and eighth segments. It is a sluggish caterpillar and is 
o-enerally seen in a motionless condition, clasping the stem of its food-plant with its 
prolegs, and holding the rest of its body in a perfectly rigid position like a small 
branch. The pupa is enclosed in a cocoon of silk and refuse on the surface of the 
ground. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It is a forest- 
dwelling species, and may often be captured in some numbers, at dusk, on the flowers 
of the white rata (M. scandens). It is very sluggish and nearly always drops to the 
ground when disturbed and feigns death. 

Genus 9.— DECLANA, Walk. 

"Face roughly haired. Antennas in male bi-pectinated to apex or simple. Palpi with second 
joint ascending, rough-haired, terminal joint rather long, slender, clavate, porrected. Thorax 
densely hairy above and beneath, with more or less developed median crest. Femora densely hairy. 
Fore-wings in male without fovea:; vein (J sometimes out of 0, 10 sometimes out of '.), connected 
or anastomosing with 0, 11 sometimes out of 10, sometimes connected or anastomosing with 10." 
—(Meyrick.) (Plate II., figs. 56 and .'.7. neuration of Declana jioccosa, 58 head of ditto.) 

We have seven species. 



IT.— THE NOTODONTINA. 95 

DECLANA ATEONIVEA, Walk. 

{Detunda atronivea, Walk.. Suppl. ii. 619. Chlenias (?) manxifera, Pereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xii. (1879), 

268, pi. ix 1. Detunda atronivea, Meyr., ib. xvi. 101.) 

(Plate X., fig. 33 f , 34 ? ; Plate HI . fig. is, larva.) 

This very handsome and conspicuous insect appears to be restricted to the North 
Island, where it is rather rare. It has occurred at Wellington, Otaki, and Napier. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 1| inches, of the female nearly 2 inches. The fore- 
wings are brilliant shining white, with numerous bitch markings : these consist chiefly of three 
irregular branching transverse bands, and a series of wedge-shaped spots on the terrnen; the 
larger markings are brownish in the centre. The hind-wings are dark grey, becoming almost 
black on the terrnen, with a fine wavy transverse black line. 

This species varies considerably in the size and shape of the black markings on 
the fore-wings, which are often slightly different on the opposite sides, in the same 
specimen. 

The eggs of this moth are oval in shape, slightly roughened on the surface and 
light blue in colour. They are deposited towards the end of October. The young larva 
escapes by gnawing a hole out of the side. 

When first hatched it is dull brownish-black, with creamy-white lateral lines and prolegs; 
the head is reddish. It feeds on Panax arborea. After the first moult the lateral lines become 
much wider, especially towards the head. After the second moult the two dorsal tubercles are 
fully developed, the thoracic segments much swollen and flattened above, the latter bearing traces 
of the black markings of the full-grown larva. After the third moult the larva becomes a dark 
brownish colour inclining to chocolate on the dorsal surface. The characteristic markings on the 
penultimate and anal segments of the adult larva now appear, and the dorsal tubercles are yellowish 
in colour; the extra prolegs are very small, and are visible as wart-like appendages on the lower 
surface of the tenth segment. 

The full-grown caterpillar is a remarkable-looking annual. The head is very small; the first 
three segments of the bodj are enormously swollen and flattened above, the flattened portions being 
white, with several small black ring-shaped markings; there is a pair of large yellowish tubercles 
on the dorsal surface of the seventh segment, and two smaller ones on the tenth and eleventh 
segments; the larva is much stouter towards the posterior extremity, especially behind the ninth 
segment ; the penultimate segment is Eurnished with a large creamy-white ridge, starting on the 
back and proceeding downwards and forward-; the extra pair of prole-- is -mall and only occa- 
sionally used in walking. The general colour of the larva is brownish- or blackish-green; the 
tenth and eleventh segments are generally darker, and there are many fine parallel linos of 
darker colouring on the central portions of the larva; the whole insect is also speckled with 
black ; the -piracies are red. The larva varies a good deal in colour, but its peculiar structure 
will at once distinguish it from any other. 

These larva;' often coil themselves up when at rest, clinging firmly with their large 
prolegs to their food-plant. ^Yhilst thus engaged they have a very remarkable 
appearance. I have not yet ascertained the precise object of the peculiar shape and 
coloration of this caterpillar. It appears to resemble very closely a lichen-covered twig, 
but I suspect in this case there is something more special aimed at. 

In connection with this subject, it is noteworthy that the flattened extremities of the 
elytra of the beetle, Ectuj>»is ferrugatis, closely resemble in both shape and colour the 
remarkable anterior segments of the larva of JJ. atronivea. As both insects feed on the 
same plant, and thus exist under very similar conditions, it is highly probable that the 
peculiarities have been independently acquired in each species for similar purposes. 

The pupa is enclosed in a light cocoon amongst dead leaves, &C, on the surface of 
the ground. 



96 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

The perfect insect appears in February and March, and may sometimes be taken at 
blossoms in the evening. It is also attracted by light, and has been found occasionally, 
in the daytime, resting on tree-trunks. It hibernates during the winter, coming abroad 
again the following spring to lay its eggs. I have observed that a good many pupa? 
from the autumnal brood do not emerge until September or October, so that the 
insect evidently spends the winter both as a pupa and as an imago. 

DECLANA EGREGIA, Feld. 

(Chlenias egregia, Feld. cxxxi. 24; Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xii. '268, pi. ix. 2. Detunda egregia, 

Meyr., ib. xvi. 101.) 

(Plate X., fig. 35.) 

This very handsome insect has occurred in the South Island at Nelson, Christchurch, 

Akaroa and the Otira Gorge. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are creamy-white ; there is a 
small thirl; brown mark at the base, a broad transverse wavy brown band before the middle, a very large 
four-cornered irregular brown mark beyond the middle, one of its comers touching the apex and the 
other the tomus ; the termen is shaded with pale grey, and there is a series of faint brown marks on 
the costa and dorsum. The hind-wings are dull white, darker towards the termen ; there are two 
very faint transverse lines. 

The perfect insect appears from November till February. It is a very rare species. 
Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

DECLANA FLOCCOSA, Walk. 

(Declaim floccosa, Walk. xv. 1649. Argua scabra, Walk, xxviii. 448. Daclana feredayi, But!., Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond. 1877, 398, pi. xliii. 5. Declaim nigrosparsa, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 500. Declaim floccosa, 
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 102.) 

(Plate X., figs. 39 to 43 $ varieties, 44 to 47 ? ditto.) 

This species has occurred very commonly at Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin. 
It is probably generally distributed throughout the country. 

The expansion of the wings is about If inches. The fore-wings are pale greyish-white with 
numerous small brownish-black streaks, exhibiting a slight concentration near the apex. The hind- 
wings are dull white, clouded with greyish towards the termen. 

This insect is so extremely variable that I have given descriptions of a few of the principal 
varieties below ; all these forms may, however, be connected by specimens exhibiting every inter- 
mediate gradation both in colour and in markings. 

1. Fore-wings with several large brown spots near the middle. 

'1. Fore-wings covered with numerous black spots (formerly known as Dcclaua nigrosparsa) 
(fig. 47). 

3. Fore-wings with two more or less conspicuous curved black or brown lines from costa to 

dorsum (figs. 41, 42, and 44). 

4. Fore-wings with these transverse lines joined by two others running parallel to dorsum and 

costa. 

5. Fore-wings with transverse lines and black spots (fig. 43). 

6. Fore-wings diffused with dark greyish-black, except two broad bands of the original light 

colour extending from costa to dorsum; hind-wings darker than usual (fig. 45). 

7. Fore-wings with a dark brown central band ; hind-wings clouded with dark brown towards 

termen, with a faint curved transverse line near the middle (figs. 39 and 40). 

All these varieties occasionally have tufts of orange-yellow scales on both the wings and on the 
body, and they also vary in other minor particulars (fig. 46). 

The egg of this insect when first laid is oval in shape and light green in colour, becoming bronzy 
a few days before the emergence of the larva. The young larva is very attenuated, with only ten legs. 



77. THE NOTODONTINA. 97 

Its colour is pale yellow striped with brownish-pink near the segmental divisions. It is very active, 
and does not devour the egg-shell after emergence. 

The full-grown larva has the body much flattened underneath. In colour it is pale brownish- 
pink, with numerous irregular darker markings, which in some specimens almost form two broad sub- 
dorsal lines. The under surface of the larva is pale green. There is a series of fleshy filaments 
of a pinkish-brown colour along each side of the insect, and an extra pair of prolegs on the ninth 
segment. 

This caterpillar is, however, very variable, its colouring appearing to depend largely 
cm its surroundings. The favourite fond-plants are Leptospermum ericoides and Aristotelia 
racemom. The larva' found on the former plant are usually pale yellowish-brown, whilst 
those from the latter are much darker brown, often mottled with grey like the stems of the 
Aristotelia. A specimen 1 once found on a mountain beech (Fagus cliff ortioides), the 
gnarled stem and branches of which were covered with grey lichens and mosses, was 
mottled with the most beautiful shades of greenish-grey. These larval varieties are very 
interesting, and in order to test the direct influence of food on the colouring of the larva?, 
I once divided a batch of eggs deposited by a single female into two equal parts, and fed 
one half on Aristotelia, and the other half on Leptospermum. The differences in colouring 
between the two lots of larva' thus treated were, however, of the most trivial description. 
This somewhat surprised me at first, as I had previously observed quite distinct varieties 
on each plant, when found in a state of nature. Hence I am now disposed to think that 
these differences have been brought about gradually, by natural selection acting on larva' 
feeding on the same plant lor a huge number of generations. By this means a sufficient 
amount of variation might be accumulated, to cause the closest possible approximation in 
colouring to the stems of the several food-plants. It is also noteworthy that many of 

these f l-plants grow in widely dissimilar localities, so that the free inter-breeding of insects 

dependent on them would not be likely to occur, and thus the peculiarities of colouring 
adapted to the stems of each food-plant would not be disturbed by the effects of inter- 
breeding. 

In connection with the foregoing experiment it is also interesting to observe, that 
the specimens fed on Aristotelia matured much more rapidly than those on Leptosper?num; 
the former plant evidently being the more nourishing food for the larva'. Also that out 
of the batch led on Aristotelia 28 became moths, of which 12 were males and 10 females ; 
whilst out of those fed on Leptospermum only -24 became moths, of which 15 were males 
and '.) females. In all other respects, excepting food-plant, the two lots of larva 1 were 
subjected to identical treatment. 

During the day this larva rests quietly attached to the stem of its food-plant, where 
it is very difficult to detect, as the filaments so closely embrace the twig or tree-trunk that 
the whole insect exactly resembles a swelling in the stem. 

The pupa of JD.floccosa is enclosed in a loose cocoon on the surface of the ground. 

The perfect insect appears about September, and continues in more or less abundance 
until the end of April. There are most likely several broods in a season, and, as we 
frequently meet with specimens of the moth on mild days in the middle of winter, it 
probably also hibernates. 

This insect is usually observed at rest on fences and tree-trunks, where its grey 
mottled colouring causes it to closely resemble a patch of lichen. 

13 



98 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

DECLANA JUNCTILINEA, Feld. 
(Plate X., fig. 37 <?, 38 2 .) 

This species has occurred occasionally in the Wellington Botanical Gardens. It 
is no doubt found elsewhere, but I cannot give any other localities with certainty. 

The expansion of the wings of the male in 1 1 inches, of the female If inches. The fore-wings 
of the male are pale yellowish-brown, with two indistinct, irregular, transverse darker lines near the 
base, a conspicuous curved line a little beyond the middle, followed by a blackish patch ; there is a 
series of very fine parallel oblique brown stripes on the costa, and several series of curved, blackish 
marks near the termen, and on the central portions of the wing. The fore-wings of the female are 
much greyer, with a conspicuous, irregular, white streak from the apex towards the dorsum, the 
central portions of the wing are white, and, with the exception of the fine, oblique costal stripes, the 
other markings of the male are usually absent. The hind-wings of both sexes are dull ochreous. The 
strongly pectinated antennae of the male, and the oblique costal markings of both sexes, will at once 
distinguish this species from any of the varieties of Declaim floccosa. 

This moth varies in the intensity of the markings, which in some specimens 
are very indistinct. 

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It is generally captured 
on blossoms in the evening. 

DECLANA HEEMIONE, n. sp. 
(Plate X., fig. 36.) 

A single specimen of this very handsome insect was captured at Khandallah near 
Wellington. 

The expansion of the wings is \\ inches. The fore-wings are bright purplish-brown, clouded with 
silvery -white towards i//< middle and on the termen ; there is a very fine oblique chocolate-brown mark 
at the base, a broad broken transverse band at about one-eighth ; a fine curved transverse line at 
about three-fourths, shaded towards the termen; there are four wavy brown marks on the termen 
inclining obliquely upwards towards the costa ; the termen itself is narrowly edged with chocolate- 
brown. The cilia are silvery mixed with brown ; the termen is very strongly bowed. The hind- 
wings are grey, shaded with purplish-grey towards the termen ; the cilia are grey. 

The type specimen was captured at sugar in November. 

DECLANA GRISEATA, n. sp. 
(Plate X., fig. 32 ? .) 

This species has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and at Lake Wakatipu 
in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is Is inches, of the female If inches. The fore-wings 
are dull slaty-grey, with a slightly paler cent nil band; there is a fine oblique wavy transverse line at 
about one-fourth, another at about one-half, and indications of a third at about three-fourths ; nume- 
rous minute black streaks are thickly scattered over the wing, especially near the base and the termen ; 
the outline of the termen is very slightly scalloped. The hind-wings are pale grey, darker near the 
termen. The body is very dark slaty-grey. The antenna- of the male are not bi-pectinated. 

The perfect insect appears in January, and is attracted by light. It is a scarce 
species. 

DECLANA NIVEATA, Butl. 

(Declaim niveata, Butl., Cist, Ent. ii. 500. Atossa niveata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 104.) 

This species has occurred at Dunedin, in the South Island. 

" The expansion of the wings of the male is 30 mm. (about lj inches). Pore-wings elongate- 
triangular, costa somewhat sinuate, termen rounded, dentate ; dull white, faintly irrorated with grey ; 
costa marked with short indistinct dark grey direct strigulse ; an irregular line towards base, and 
another twice angulated about two-thirds, obscurely indicated by dark grey scales; some scattered 



SPHINX. 






than one-half, gradually tl 


uckened to apex, then 


double posterioi 


: tuft. Ab 


lomen smooth, broad, 



II.— THE NOTODONTINA. 99 

dark grey strigulse before termen. Hind-wings moderate, termen crenate, angularly projecting in 
middle; 'wholly white. 

"I took one fine specimen at rest on a tree-trunk near Dunedin, in February." — 
(Meyrick.) 

Family 6.— SPHINGID^. 

"Head with dense appressed hairs. < tcelli absent. Eyes glabrous. Antenna:- thickened towards 
middle or posteriorly, in male ciliated with partial whorls. Labial palpi moderate, ascending, with dense 
projecting scales. Thorax densely hairy beneath. Femora densely hairy. Fore-wings with vein 16 
furcate, 6 out of 8, 9 absent (rarely present in exceptional individuals). Hind-wings with veins 3 and 
4 approximated at base, 5 from middle of transverse vein, parallel to 4, 6 and 7 connate or stalked, 
8 connected by oblique bar with margin of cell before middle, more or less approximated to 7 near 
beyond cell." (Plate I., figs. L2 and 13, neuration of Deilephila after Meyrick .) 

" This family is generally distributed, but is most plentiful in the tropics. The 
imagos are usually large insects, with stout, heavy bodies, elongate-triangular fore-wings 
with very oblique termen, and relatively small hind-wings ; the wing muscles are very 
strong, and the flight exceptionally powerful. Ovum spheroidal, smooth. Larva stout, 
usually with an oblique, projecting anal horn, anterior segments sometimes retractile 
or raised in repose. Pupa subterranean." — (Meyrick.) 

Only one genus is represented in New Zealand, viz., Sphinx. 

Genus 1. 

" Tongue strongly developed. Antennae 1< 
pointed, apex slender, hooked. Thorax with lo 
conical, pointed. Tibia- with appressed scales. 

11 A moderately large genus, ranging over the whole world, but principally cha- 
racteristic of America. Imago living at dusk, feeding on the wing." —(Meyrick.) 

This genus is represented in New Zealand by one almost cosmopolitan species. 

SPHINX CONVOLVULI, L. 

[Protoparce distans, Butl. Sphinx convolvuli, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 213.) 

(Plate XIII., fig. 1. ; Plate III., figs. 13 and 14 varieties of larvae.) 

This handsome insect often occurs in the northern portions of the North Island, 
but becomes very rare southward of Napier and New Plymouth. In the South Island 
it has been taken at Nelson, and recently a very mutilated specimen of what appears 
to be this species has been found by Mr. Philpott, near West Plains, Invercargill. With 
these exceptions I have not heard of its appearance in any other localities in the South 
Island. 

The expansion of the wings is about 3^ inches. The fore-wings are greyish-brown with several 
irregular, darker markings near the base; and a broad, dark, central band; beyond the central band 
there is a very irregular, pale grey, toothed line. The hind-wings are yellowish-grey, with four trans- 
verse, darker stripes, the outermost one strongly toothed. The head and thorax arc dark grey, paler 
on the back, with two conspicuous tufts of pale grey hair on the shoulders. The abdomen is grey, 
striped on the sides with rose-colour and black. 

The larva feeds on Convolvuhis. Like many of the caterpillars of the Spldngidce, 
there are two very distinct varieties : one is bright green, with white spiracles, and 
a series of diagonal yellow lines above them ; the other is dull yellowish-brown, 
with broad blackish-brown dorsal and ventral lines, and a series of triangular blackish 
spots above the spiracles, which in this variety are jet-black. In both these forms of 



100 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

larvae the anal horn is dark red tipped with black, and the skin is covered with numerous 
tine wrinkles. The length of the caterpillar when full grown is 3A inches. 

About the middle or end of February these larvae generally bury themselves in 
the ground, where they are transformed into pupae. They remain in that condition until 
the following summer. 

The pupa is about '2 inches in length and is of a dark mahogany-brown colour. It 
is furnished with a large curved process, projecting from the lower side of the head, and 
containing the enormous proboscis of the future moth. 

The perfect insect appears in November and December. It Hies with incredible 
velocity at evening dusk, and is often observed hovering over flowers, and whilst poised 
in the air above them, extracts the honey with its long proboscis. Mr. A. P. Buller has 
very kindly furnished me with the following interesting notes on the habits of this 
species, as observed by him in the Auckland district : — 

"During the summer of LS79 I came across 8. convolvuli in great numbers, near 
Ohinemutu, in the Hot Lake district, frequenting at dusk a tall, delicately perfumed 
meadow flower (Oenothera biennis, commonly called the evening primrose). They 
were to be seen on the wing soon after sundown, and on warm, still evenings literally 
swarmed. It was an extremely pretty sight to watch their rapid movements as they 
darted from flower to flower, never alighting, and keeping up a constant vibration of 
their wings as they probed the yellow blossoms. They appeared to be extremely local, 
for I only met with them on a few of the grassy slopes round the shores of Lake 
Rotorua. I visited the same locality two years later, at the same season, and only 
occasionally saw one, although the evening primrose was in full bloom at the time. In 
1882 I captured several at flowers of the trumpet-tree (Brugmansia) in a garden 
near Auckland. The same summer I found large numbers of the larvae at Waiwera 
(near Auckland), on a species of convolvulus growing in profusion on the sandhills 
in the vicinity. Although the larva- were so abundant I never came across the perfect 
insect. I obtained some twenty or thirty of the pupae, but unfortunately was never 
successful in hatching out the imago. As far as my knowledge goes, this beautiful moth 
is confined to the Auckland and Waikato districts, although I have heard of a single 
specimen being taken in Hawkes Lay." 

I am also much indebted to Air. Buller for the loan of a very perfect specimen 
of this moth, expressly lent to me for figuring and describing in the present work. 

Mr. Meyrick informs us that this insect occurs throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, 
Australia and the islands of the South Pacific, wherever a suitable situation is found, 
and has been met with far out at sea.' In America it is represented by a form which 
seems to he regarded as specifically distinct, but which he thinks is probably identical. 
If this be the ease the insect is practically cosmopolitan. 

* 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' xxii. '214. 



101 



III. TH E LASIOCAMPINA. 

Not represented in New Zealand. 



I V. — T HE PAPILIONINA 



The Papilionina are distinguished by the following characters: — 

"Head rough-haired. Ocelli absent. Tongue developed. Ajitennaa slender, dilated apically, 
forming a gradual or abrupt club. Labial palpi moderately long, more or less rough-haired, 
terminal joint rather pointed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Thorax more or less hairy. Fore- 
wings with lb simple, lc absent, 5 usually from or above middle of transverse vein. Hind- 
wings without frenulum, lc absent, '6 and 4 usually connate, 8 rising out of cell near base, rapidly 
diverging."— (Meyrick.) (See Plate [., figs. 7, 8, 15, 16, '2.5, 26, 27.) 

This is one of the most interesting groups of the Lepidoptera. The insects 
comprised in it are popularly known as butterflies, and from their bright colouring 
and conspicuous appearance are always favourites with beginners. The Papilionina 
attain great development in the tropics, especially in South America, where, it is 
said, a single valley sometimes contains as many species as the whole of Europe. 
In New Zealand there are only fifteen species of butterflies, the group being extremely 
poorly represented both here and in the South Pacific Islands. 

Formerly the Papilionina was known as the Bhopalocera, and was regarded 
as constituting a division of equivalent value to the remainder of the Lepidoptera, 
which was termed the Heterocera. For some time past entomologists have, how- 
ever, practically abandoned this classification of the order, the Heterocera, or moths, 
being clearly composed of several groups each of equivalent value to the Rliopalocera, 
or butterflies. Mr. Meyrick states in his ' Handbook of British Lepidoptera ' that 
the Papilionina " stands rather conspicuously isolated at the present day, but there 
is little doubt that its origin must be traced to the Thyrididce, a family of the 
Pyralidina." 

In this group the wings are generally held erect in repose, the under surface of 
the hind-wings and the apical portion of the under surface of the fore-wings being 
nearly always protectively coloured, these being portions of the wings exposed to 
view when the insect is at rest. There is an unusual amount of ornamental colouring 
on the upper surface. The flight is invariably diurnal. The larva has ten prolegs. 

The three following families of Papilionina are represented in New Zealand : — 

1. NYMPHALIDiE. - 2. SATYKIDiE. 3. LyC.ENII'E. 



102 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

Family l.-NYMPHALID^E. 

"Anterior legs in both sexes much reduced, useless for walking; posterior tibiae without 
middle spurs. Fore-wings with veins 8 and 9 out of 7. Hind-wings with praecostal spur." 
(Plate I., figs. 7 and 8.) 

" An extremely large family, mainly tropical. The species are of large or 
moderate size, usually dark-coloured, with light or bright bands or rows of spots. 

"Ovum cylindrical or sub-conical, ribbed and often reticulated. Larva with 
pairs of tentacles or more usually series of bristly spines. Pupa exposed, suspended 
by the tail, often angular or with metallic spots." — (Meyrick.) (See Plate III., 
figs. 1, 2, and 3 larva', '27, 31 and 32 pup*.) 

We have three genera represented in New Zealand : — 

1. Anosia. 2. Vanessa. 3. Junonia. 

Genus 1.— ANOSIA. 

" Eyes glabrous. Club of antennae elongate, gradual. Fore-wings with vein 10 separate. 
Hind-wings with transverse vein present." (Plate I., fif, f s. 7 and 8, neuration of A. erippus.) 

" A genus of moderate extent, generally distributed within the tropics, with two 
or three species ranging beyond them. Imago with termen of fore-wings sub- 
concave. Larva with pairs of long tentacles. Both larva and imago are protected 
by a strong nauseous scent, or taste, and are uneatable to birds." — (Meyrick.) 

We have two species in New Zealand. 

ANOSIA EKIPPUS, Cr. 
(Papilio archippus, Fabricius, Spec. Ins., p. 55, n. 243 (1781). Danais archippus, Butler, Butterflies of 
N. Z., Trans. N. Z. Inst. x. 265. Anosia plexippus, L.) 
(Plate XL, fig. 1, fig. 2 under side; Plate IIP, fig. 3 larva, fig. 27 pupa. J 
This handsome insect has occurred from time to time at various localities in 
both the North and the South Islands, but does not appear to be generally common. 
Particulars of the early captures of this butterfly are thus given by Mr. Enys ° : 
"First recorded as a New Zealand insect by Mr. Fereday, in a paper read before 
the Canterbury Institute, January 2, 187-1, and printed in vol. vi. of ' Transactions.' 
Mr. Fereday received the butterfly from F. H. Meinertzhagen, of Hawkes Bay. Dr. 
Hector also obtained it in Westland. It has also been caught near Auckland. In 
vol. xi. of ' Transactions ' Mr. F. W. Sturm records that he first saw this insect, or 
a closely allied one, at the Reinga, up the Wairoa River, Hawkes Bay, December, 
1840, or January, 1841. In 1848 he captured a, number at the Waiau, a tributary 
to that river. Again in 1861 he captured three on the Rangitikei River near Mr. 
Birch's run. He also records other captures." From these records it will be seen 
that the insect was observed as early as 1840, and it thus seems scarcely probable 
that it was accidentally introduced by man, as Mr. Butler appears to suppose.! 
Recently A. erippus has occurred many times in the neighbourhood of Cook's Straits. 
In 1879 several specimens were bred from larvae found by Mr. C. W. Lee near 
Wangaehu. In 1881 I captured two specimens near Nelson and saw three others. 
In 1890 two specimens were taken by Mr. R. I. Kingsley, and in January of the 
following year I captured two more, all near Nelson. During the autumn of 1892 

'Catalogue oi X. Z. Butterflies,' p. '21. | 'Trans. N. Z. Inst.' x. 265. 



TV. THE PAPILIONINA. 103 

one specimen whs taken near Otaki by Mr. Eutherfurd, and several others were 
seen. The same year a specimen was also taken by Sir James Hector at Petone. 
In L896, I understand from Mr. Kingsley, several specimens were again seen in the 
Nelson district. 

The expansion of the wings is from 3| to -i\ inches. Above, all the wings are rich orange- 
brown bordered with black, the veins are also black. There are two rows of small white spots 
round the margins of all the wings, and several orange-brown spots near the apex of the fore- 
wings. Beneath, the markings are similar, except that the white spots are larger, and the hind- 
wines are very pale yellowish-brown. The male has a black chitinous spot on vein 2 of the hind- 
wings which is wanting in the female ; the wine-veins in the male are also slightly narrower. 

The larva of this insect feeds on most of the different kinds of milkweed 
(Asclepias), and also upon dogbane (Apocynum). A single caterpillar, fully grown, 
which was found in a building in the centre of the town of Wellington, formed the 
subject from which the figures of the metamorphosis of this insect were taken, but 
this specimen did not afford sufficient material for an exhaustive investigation of the 
life-history. The following account, taken from Professor Riley's 'Third Annual 
Report of the Noxious, Beneficial, and other Insects of the State of Missouri,' is 
therefore inserted : — 

"The egg is invariably deposited on the under side of a leaf, and is conical and delicately 
reticulate with longitudinal ribs, and fine transverse stria:'. It is yellowish when first deposited, 
hut becomes grey as the embryo within develops. 

"In about five days after laying the egg hatches, and the young larva as soon as hatched 
usually turns round and devours its egg-shell — a custom very prevalent with young caterpillars. 
At this stage it differs considerably from the mature larva ; it is perfectly cylindrical, about 0'12 
inch long, and of much the same thickness throughout. The head is jet black and polished ; 
the colour of the body is pale greenish-white, with the anterior and posterior horns showing as 
mere black conical joints, and with two transverse-oval black warts, nearer together, on the first 
joint. It is covered with minute black bristles, arising from still more minute warts. 

"When the young larva is three or lour days old a dusky band appears across the middle 
of each joint, and by the fifth or sixth day it spins a carpet of silk upon the leaf, and prepares 
for its first moult. After the first moult the anterior horns are as long as the thoracic legs, 
the posterior ones being somewhat shorter; the characteristic black stripes show quite distinctly, 
but the white and yellow stripes more faintly. After this it undergoes but slight change in 
appearance, except that the colours become brighter, and that at each successive moult the horns 
become relatively longer. There are but three moults, and the intervals between them are short, 
as the larvae frequently acquire their full growth within three weeks from hatching. 

"As soon as the larva is full grown it spins a little tuft of silk to the under 
side of whatever object it may be resting upon, and after entangling the hooks of 
its hind legs in the silk it lets go the hold of its other legs and hangs down, with 
the head and anterior joints of the body curved. In this position it hangs for about 
twenty-four hours, during which the fluids of the body naturally gravitate towards 
the upturned joints, until the latter become so swollen that at last, by a little effort 
on the part of the larva, the skin bursts along the back behind the head. Through 
the rent thus made the anterior portion of the pupa is protruded, and by constant 
stretching and contracting the larval skin is slipped and crowded backwards until 
there is but a small shrivelled mass gathered around the tail. Now comes the critical 
period — the culminating point. 

"The soft and supple chrysalis, yet showing the elongate larval form with 
distinct traces of its prolegs, hangs heavily from the shrunken skin. From this skin 



104 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

it is to be extricated and firmly attached to the silk outside. It has neither legs 
nor arms, and we should suppose that it would inevitably fall while endeavouring to 
accomplish this object. But the task is performed with the utmost surety, though 
appearing so perilous to us. The supple and contractile joints of the abdomen are 
made to subserve the purpose of legs, and by suddenly grasping the shrunken larval 
skin between the folds of two of these joints as with a pair of pincers, the chrysalis 
disengages the tip of its body and hangs for a moment suspended. Then with a few 
earnest, vigorous, jerking movements it succeeds in sticking the horny point of its 
tail into the silk, and firmly fastening it by means of a rasp of minute claws with 
which that point is furnished. Sometimes severe effort is needed before the point is 
properly fastened, and the chrysalis frequently has to climb by stretching the two 
joints above those by which it is suspended, and clinging hold of the shrivelled skin 
further up. The moment the point is fastened the chrysalis commences, by a series 
of violent jerkings and whirlings, to dislodge the larval skin, after which it rests 
from its efforts and gradually contracts and hardens. The really active work lasts 
but a few minutes, and the insect rarely fails to go through with it successfully. 
The chrysalis is a beautiful object, and as it hangs pendant from some old fence- 
board or from the under side of an Asclepias leaf, it reminds one of some large ear- 
drop ; but, though the jeweller could successfully imitate the form, he might well 
despair of ever producing the clear pale-green and the ivory-black and golden marks 
which so characterize it. 

" The chrysalis state lasts but a short time, as is the case with all those which 
are known to suspend themselves nakedly by the tail. At the end of about the tenth 
day the dark colours of the future butterflies begin to show through the delicate and 
transparent skin, and suddenly this skin bursts open near the head, and the new- 
born butterfly gradually extricates itself, and stretching forth its legs and clambering 
on to some surrounding object, allows its moist, thickened, and contracted wings to 
hang listlessly from the body." 

The perfect insect appears in March and April, hibernated specimens being met 
with in the spring. It is a most striking species on the wing, and one which, when 
once seen, is not likely to be forgotten. 

ANOSIA BOLINA, L. 

(Diadema tierina, Butler, Butterflies of N. Z., p. 13. Female.— Papilio nciiiia, Fain-., Syst. Ent., p. .009, 
l). 277 (1775); Donovan, Ins. of New Holland, pi. 27, fig. 1 (1805). Papilio iphigenia, Pap. Exot., 1, 
pi. lxvii., figs. D, E, (1775). Var. Papilio proserpina, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 3, pi. cexviii., figs. C, D, 
(1782). Male ? Papilio auge, Cramer, Pap. Exot., 2, pi. exc, figs. A, B (1779).) 
(Plate XII., fig. 7 <?, 8 J , 9 under side.) 

This fine species appears to be rare in New Zealand, but I think it has now 
occurred often enough to entitle it to a place amongst our native butterflies. The 
following is a list of the captures so far as I am able to ascertain them : — 

From Mr. Eny's 'Catalogue of New Zealand Butterflies' the first specimen taken 
appears to have been a male, which was captured by Dr. Sinclair, of Auckland, and 
sent to the British Museum before the year 1855. The Rev. Richard Taylor also 
caught one male specimen in his garden at Wanganui, and saw another, the only 

* 'Cat. N. Z. Butterflies,' p. 2-2. 



IV.— THE PAPILIONTNA. 105 

two he observed in thirty-four years. Dr. Baker saw one in his garden at Christ- 
church on lilac flowers, also a male. Mr. R. W. Fereday + records the capture of the 
first female specimen by a son of Mr. Thomas Tanner, near Napier, in January, LS76. 
On the 18th of March, 1885, Mr. R. I. Kingsley ' took a hue female specimen in 
Nelson, and on the 25th of March, L886, I saw another female specimen in the same 
locality; 1 also understand that quite a number of specimens of both sexes have 
been recently captured in the neighbourhood of Auckland.' 

From the foregoing records, I think that there are very good reasons for 
regarding this as an indigenous species, as it is very improbable that such a large 
number of specimens would have been accidentally introduced to the various localities 
at so many different times. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 3| indies, of the female 4 inches. On the 
upper side all the wings of the male are rich brownish-black, with a large white blotch in the 
middle of each, surrounded by a patch of brilliant flashing blue; there is also a small white 
spot near the apex of the fore-wings and a series of while crescent-shaped markings <>n the 
termen of all the wings. The fore-wings of the female are brownish-black, with a patch of deep 
orange-brown near the tornus; there is a series of four very large oval white spots on the costa, 
beyond the middle, a, smaller white spot near the apex, and three rows of small white marks 
parallel to the termen; the hind-wanes are brownish-black, with a broad white hand across the 
middle, several small white spots, and a double series of white markings parallel to the termen; 
all the wings of the female have brilliant bluish reflections near the white spots. On the under side 
the wings of both sexes are rich brown with white markings, and a double series of white 
crescents on the termen. 

The female appears to he very variable in almost every respect. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. From its large 
size and brilliant colouring it is easily recognised. Although rare in New Zealand, 
it is very common in Australia. It also occurs in Java, New Guinea and the 
Loyalty Islands. A smaller representative is found in Samoa {Anosia otalieitce, 
Feld.), which is probably only a variety of this species. 

The figures and descriptions of this insect are taken from Australian specimens, 
which were kindly forwarded to me by the late Mr. Ollift. 

Genus 2.— VANESSA. 

Eyes hairy. Club of antennae abrupt. Fore-wanes with vein 10 separate. Hind-wines 
with transverse vein present. 

" A moderate genus, principally characteristic of the Northern Hemisphere. Larva 
with six or seven rows of bristly spines. Pupa with angular prominences, often with 
golden metallic spots." — Meyrick. 

Of this very beautiful and interesting genus we have three species in New Zealand. 

VAN KSSA ( H INEEILLA, Fabr. 

(Papilio gonerilla, Fabricius, Syst. Ent. p. 498, n. '237 (1775) ; Donovan, Ins. New Holland, pi. 25, tig. 2 

(1805). Vanessa gonerilla, White in Taylor's New Zealand, pi. 2, tig. 1 (1855).) 

(Plate XII.. tie. 5, 6 under side; Plate TIL. figs. 1 and -2 larva-. :-il and 32 pupae) 

This handsome insect is the most familiar of New Zealand butterflies, it is 

very common and generally distributed throughout the country. 

* 'Trans. N. Z. Institute,' ix. 163. I Ibid, xviii. 205. 

I Since writing the above, J have been informed bj Mr. Kingslc) that one male specimen of A. bolhia was taken 
at Wakapuaka, in 1896, and two others reported as seen at CoUingwood and Nelson in March. 1897. Mr. A. P. Buller has 
also kindly informed me of the capture of a male specimen in perfect condition, at Ohau, Manawatu district, in March, 1898. 

11 



L06 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

The expansion of the wings varies from 2| to '2 ; j inches. Above, all the wings are Mark. 
becoming bronzy towards the body. The fore-wings have a band of dark red nearly across the 
middle, ami a series of three sum)/ blue spots, ami three larger white spots near the apex. The 
hind-wings have a broad dark red band near the termen, containing tiro pairs of black spats with 
blue em/res. On the underside the fore-wings are dark brown, with a broad patch of red in the 
middle, and a very conspicuous eye-like mark on the costa, consisting of a black central spot 
surrounded by a blue ring, and encircled by a.yellow crescent towards the termen. The hind-wings 
are brownish-grey, with many darker and paler markings; the four spots on the upper surface 
are faintly indicated mi the under side by blackish rings and central dots; the colouring of the 
under side varies a good deal. It is considerably darker and duller in some specimens than 
in others. 

The egg, which is deposited on a nettle-leaf, is barrel-shaped, ornamented with a series 
of longitudinal ribs meeting in a central spot on the top. It is pale green, with the ribs white. 
The young larva, when first hatched, is dusky-yellow, with the spines black. In about a week 
it moults for the first time, and is then of an almosl uniform brown, with the lateral lines faintly 
indicated. Ten days later it again sheds its skin, after which time the white lateral markings 
are considerably stronger. The full-grown larva varies from black to reddish-brown, with 
interrupted pale lateral and dorsal lines. On the third and fourth segments there are four spines, on 
the tilth to eleventh seven spines; the twelfth segment has six spines, and the thirteenth two spines 
There are numerous white dots all over the larva. The spines vary from pale green to black, The 
caterpillar is considerably attenuated at each end, the central portions being somewhat swollen. 
Length about 1 A inches. 

This caterpillar constructs for itself a small font by fastening together several 
of the leaves of its food-plant. In this dwelling it can feed, safely concealed 
from all enemies. There are two kinds of nettles constituting the food of this 
insect — one a small plant, which generally grows in little patches amongst ferns in 
the forest (Urtica incisa), the other a large shrub or tree often found in rather 
open situations near rivers (Urtica ferox). The shrub is easily recognised by the 
formidable array of long, white spines which project from the midrib of each leaf. 
The larva' of V. gonerilla are much more easily collected on the tree nettle than on 
the dwarf species ; their leafy tents being easily detected by an examination of 
the foliage. When once discovered the larva' are best obtained by cutting off, with 
a pair of strong scissors, the leaves which form their habitations. Like most larva' 
of the genus Vanessa, these caterpillars are extremely voracious and soon eat them- 
selves out of house and home. Those feeding on the tree nettle have an unlimited 
supply of leaves available both for food and shelter, but in the case of larvae, 
which are dependent on the dwarf nettle for their supplies, no doubt individuals must 
occasionally die of starvation, as we sometimes observe large patches of the Urtica 
ni, -isa completely destroyed by the larva 1 of this butterfly. In some seasons these 
larva' may be found as early as the middle of September, and continue abundant 
until the middle or end of January. 

When full grown, this caterpillar suspends itself by the tail to a little patch of 
silk, which it has spun on the under side of a leaf, having also drawn two or three 
other leaves around it in the same way as the feeding larva. In this situation it 
hangs, with the head and three anterior segments slightly curved upwards, for nearly 
twenty -four hours before the transformation to the pupa state occurs. I have often 
watched these larva; changing, and as their manoeuvres during the process exactlj 
resemble those of Anosia erippus a special description is unnecessary. The actual 
transformation may be easily observed in this species, as the larvae are common and 



TV.— THE PAPILIONINA. 107 

can be obtained in large numbers. It is well worth watching, and if a good many 
specimens are kept at once, some of them are sure to change at a convenient time 
for observation. The pupa varies from pale yellowish-brown to dark purplish-brown, 
darker on the wing-cases and ventral surface. The spines on the back are golden. 
The whole insect is also speckled with brown or black dots. The pupa varies 
considerably in size as well as in colour. In this insect the pupa state is of very 
short duration, usually only lasting about a fortnight. 1 am informed by Mr. 
Helms that the pupa of Vanessa qonerilla is often destroyed by the common 
hemipteron, Cermatuhts nasalis, which penetrates its shell by means of its long 
rostrum, and speedily consumes the liquid internal portions. 

The perfect insect usually emerges early in the morning. \t dries its wings for a 
few hours whilst resting on the old nettle-leaves which formed its home when a larva. 
The increasing warmth of the sunshine soon hardens the wings sufficiently to allow 
the new-horn butterfly to fly away. 

This insect is very common in most situations from January till April. Tt lives 
through the winter, appearing again on fine days towards the end of August. During the 
spring and early summer these hibernated individuals occur in great profusion, a lew 
specimens always remaining until the earliest of the new ones have emerged ; so that about 
December we may occasionally observe both hibernated and recent specimens together. 

In the autumn these butterflies may he seen feeding on the flowers of the scabious 
and the white rata, thus preparing for their long winter sleep. In the spring, however, 
the insect is most abundant in the vicinity of the nettle-plants, where the females are 
busily engaged depositing their eggs. 

1 have noticed that this insect possesses the power of emitting a distinct grating or 
hissing noise, evidently closely resembling the sound, which has been observed to he 
emitted by several European species of the genus. 1 " This sound is only made when a 
specimen is roused from a semi-torpid condition ; and it is thought that it may be useful 
to the insect for the purpose of intimidating intruders during its period of hibernation. 

This butterfly is a rapid flier and may often he seen pursuing a straight course high 
above the tree-tops, apparently migrating in search of fresh breeding-grounds. It appears 
to have a singular liking for hill-tops, and a specimen which has selected one of these 
places will keep on returning to the same spot, after being repeatedly frightened away. In 
such situations, if the weather be calm and sunny, we may frequently see two specimens 
engaged in aerial battle. They fly upwards, and coursing round each other with great 
velocity, almost disappear in the clear blue sky. A few seconds later the two insects, 
gently fanning their wings in the warm sunshine, are again seen in their respective places. 

VANESSA ITEA, Pabr. 
(Papilio lira, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 498, n. 238 (1775); Donovan Ins. New Holland, pi. 26, fig. 1 
(1805). Vanessa itea, Godart, Enc. Moth. ix. p. 321, n. 57 (1819); White in Taylor's Now Zealand, pi. 2, 
figs. 2,2 lis:,:,). Bassaris itea, Eubner, Sainml. Esot. Schmett. (1816 24). Pijrnmeh itea, Doubleday, Gen. 
Diuni. Lepid., p. '202 (1849).) 

(Plate XII., fig. 3, fig. 1 under side.) 
This beautiful butterfly is, I believe, fairly abundant in the northern portions of the 
North Island, but becomes scarcer southwards of Napier and New Plymouth. In the 

"■'- See notes by Mr. Stainton in the Ent. Mo. Mag., xxv. pp. 225, 268. 



108 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPTDOPTEBA. 

South Island I believe I once saw a specimen at Nelson, but beyond that I can find no 
record of its occurrence there. 

The expansion of the wings is about '2 inches. The fore-wings are black, becoming reddish-brown 
speckled with gold towards the base ; there is a very broad yellmo band nearly across the middle, and 
one yellow and tiro white spots near the apex. The hind-wings are rich reddish-brown, broadly 
bordered with black, especially towards the costa; there are four small black spots with blue centres 
near the termen, and a blue stripe bordered with black at the tornus. The under surface closelj 
resembles that of Vanessa gonerilla, except thai the red patch mi the fore-wings is replaced by pale 
yellow, ami the markings mi the hind-wings are more sharply defined. 

The perfect insect appears from January till April, hibernated specimens occurring in 
the spring. It is very fond of selecting a perch on the top of a hill, and often engages in 
violent encounters with Vanessa gonerilla. During the contest both insects course round 
each other with great rapidity, and generally ascend to a considerable elevation. They 
almost invariably return to their former resting-places. This is a fortunate habit for the 
collector, as it frequently enables him to ultimately capture a specimen, which he has 
almost touched with the net on several previous occasions. I have noticed this propensity 
to return to a favourite perch in the European species of the genus Vanessa, so that it is 
most likely a congenital habit, probably of great antiquity. 

This insect has a fine appearance when flying ; the large yellow spots on the fore- 
wings are then very conspicuous, and ensure its immediate and certain recognition. 

VANESSA CAEDUI, L. 

{Vanessa cardui, L. Cynthia kershawii, McCoy, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, iv., vol. i. p. 76 (1868). 

Pyrameis cardui, var. P. kershaivii, Butler, Erebus and Terror Lep., p. 29 (1874).) 

(Plate XII., fig. 1, 2 under side.) 

This elegant butterfly occurs throughout both islands, but is very irregular in its 

appearance. In some years it is quite abundant, whilst in others scarcely a specimen will 

be seen. During the summer of 1889-1890 it was extremely plentiful in the Wellington 

district, being at that time much commoner than Vanessa gonerilla, but its appearance in 

such large numbers as this was, I think, very exceptional. 

The expansion of the wines varies from 2 to 2£ inches. Above, all the wings are orange-red, 
spotted and mottled with black. The fore-wines are bronzy towards the base ; in the black apex there 
are Jin white spots. Near tile termen of the hind-wings three of the black spots have blue centres. 
On the under side of the fore-wings the markings are very similar to those on the upper side, except 
that there are several additional while blotches, and the orange-red ground colour has a rosy blush 
towards the base. The hind-wings arc very beautifully mottled with an elaborate series of pale brown, 
purplish-grey, yellowish-brown, and white markings; three of the large spots near the termen have 
pale blue centres. 

I have not yet met with the larva of this insect, neither can I find any record of its 
having been observed in New Zealand. The following description by Mr. Stainton is 
taken from a European specimen : ° " The spiny larva is brown with two dorsal and two 
lateral yellow lines; on the third, fourth, and twelfth segments there are four spines ; on 
the fifth to eleventh segments seven spines, and on the thirteenth two spines ; it feeds 
solitarily in rolled thistle-leaves." 

The perfect insect appears in January, February, March and April, hibernated 
specimens occurring from August until December. It is a much more wary butterfly than 
either Vanessa gonerilla or V. ilea, and can seldom be captured after it has once been 

• British Butterflies and Moths,' p. L03. 



TV— THE PAPILIONTNA. 109 

disturbed, although it will often return to the same spot several times in succession. In 
fact, owing to its extreme timidity, its capture is generally attended with some difficulty. 

This insect is found almost throughout the entire world. In specimens from the 
Northern Hemisphere the black spots on the hind-wings have no blue centres, and the 
butterflies are a little larger than those found in the Southern Hemisphere, otherwise the 
two insects are exactly alike. The southern form has been called 1". Jcershawii by several 
writers, but the differences do not appear to me to be sufficiently important to merit a 
distinct specific name, especially as both forms occur together in South Africa. 

This insect has frequently been observed at various places on the European Continent 
migrating in vast swarms; and it seems probable that its strong migratory instinct may 
have led to its enormously wide range at the present time. 

Genus 3.— JUNONIA. 

" Eyes glabrous. Club of an tennse abrupt. Fore-wings, with vein LO separate. Hind-wings 
uitli transverse vein, absent between veins 4 and •">." (Meyriek.) 
We have one species in New Zealand. 

•II 'NOMA VELLEDA. 
(Plate XI., fig. L6, fig. 17 under side.) 

This butterfly was very common in the neighbourhood of Wellington during the 
summer of 1886-87. To the best of my knowledge the insect had not previously been 
observed in New Zealand, but I understand from Mr. It. Holloway that he has since met 
with it on the sea-coast near Xew Plymouth, in L893, and at Motueka in 1898. 

The expansion of the wings is nearly -2 inches. On the upper side all the wings are dull blackish- 
brown, with greenish or bronzy reflections. The fore-wings have t\v<> broad orange-brown stripes on 
the costa, and a very large patch of tin same colour along the termen, containing a large black spot 
with a bluish-white centre : there an- three irregular whitish marks near the apex of tin- wane. an( J ;l 
minute blue-centred ocellus. The hind-wings have tir<> eery large orange-brown spots almost touching 
each other near the termen ; each of these contains a large blue-centred ocellus in the middle ; there are 
also two terminal rows of In-own crescent-shaped markings. Underneath, the markings of the fore- 
wings resemble tla.se of the upper sale, hut they are very much paler, ami the ground colour is light 
brown. The hind-wmes are pale brown, with a wavy black line across the middle, followed h\ 
a. brown shading towards the termen; there are also hair small round black spots and a series of 
irregular black dots near the termen. 

The perfect insect occurred very plentifully in December, January and February, 
and was fond of settling on barren, stony places in the hot sunshine. It was very timid 
and difficult to catch, darting off with great rapidity when approached. During the 
season I managed to secure about nine specimens, some of them in very good condition. 
I am unable to explain the sudden appearance of this butterfly in Xew Zealand during 
the above-mentioned year. The large numbers, which wen- observed over extended areas, 
almost seem to forbid its accidental importation from Australia, whilst the distance of 
Xew Zealand from that continent would render immigration a most unlikely circumstance. 
On the other hand, if the insect is a regular inhabitant of this country, it is strange that 
it had never before been observed. When on the wing, its superficial resemblance to 
Vanessa cardtii may have led to its having been overlooked, and hence it is very 
desirable that entomologists should use every effort to detect it in the future. 

According to Mr. Olliff, this butterfly litis a very wide geographical range, being 



110 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

found in Java, Sumatra, Tasmania and all parts of the Australian Continent. About the 
year 1830 it was described by Stephens, in his ' British Entomology,' under the name 
of Cynthia Jiampstediensis, on account of its having been taken at Hampstead, the well- 
Known suburb of London. Subsequently it transpired that the specimen in question was 
no doubt of foreign origin, its "appearance" having been due to a practical joke 
perpetrated on the British Lepidopterists of the day. 

Family 3. SATYRID^E. 

"Characters of Nymphalida, bul fore-wings with vein 12 greatly dilated towards base." 
(Plate I., figs. 25, 26, and -27, neuration of Erebia -pinto.) 

"A large group of very general distribution. 'Flic species are usually of moderate 
size, generally dark coloured with light bands or spots, and with several round, black, 
white-centred spots on lower surface. Some of them are more fond of shady places than 
is customary in this group. 

"Ovum spherical-ovate, surface reticulated and often ribbed. Larva more or less 
tapering towards extremities, with short hairs ; segment 13 ending in two points ; feeding 
on grass. Pupa suspended by the tail or unattached, sometimes subterranean." - 
(Meyrick.) (See Plate III., tigs. 4 and 5 larva-, 28 and '20 pupse.) 

Of this family we have three genera represented in New Zealand: — 
1. Aegyrophenga. 2. Dodonidia. 3. Erebia. 

Genus 1 .—AEGYROPHENGA. 

Eyes glabrous. Club of antennae somewhat abrupt. Pore-wings with lower margin of cell 
greatly dilated towards base; veins 8, 9, 10, and II out of 7; vein 12 greatly dilated towards base. 
Of this genus there is one species in Xew Zealand. 

AEGYROPHENGA ANTIPODUM, Doubleday. 

{Argyrophenga antipodum, Doubleday, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. xvi. p. 307 (1845); Gen. Diurn, Lepid. 

pi. 63, fig. 6 (1851); Butler, Erebus and Terror Lep., pi. 8, figs. 4, 7 (1871).) 

(Plate XI., fig. 4 J , :> ? , : J , variety, 6 under side of J , 7 under side of variety : Plate I II.. lie. 4 

larva, fie. -J'.i pupa.) 

This species occurs commonly on the tussock lands from Christchurch to Invercargill. 
In the provinces of Nelson and Marlborough it is, i believe, confined to situations having 
elevations of from 2,000 to 4, ()(!() feet above the sea-level. It has never been captured in 
the North Island. 

The expansion of the wines vanes from 1 ; l to 1 ; j undies. Above, all the wings are dull brownish- 
black, paler near the body ; the outer portion of each is covered with a large patch of bright orange- 
brown (northern form), or fawn colour (southern form) : on the fore-wings this patch contains a large 
oral I, lark spot, with tiro white dots in the middle; on the hind-wings there are two, three, or four 
black spots, with our white dot in the centre of each ; beneath, the markings on the fore-wings 
resemble tlmse of the upper surface, except thai there are often several short silvery stripes near 
the apex; the hind-wings are dull yellow, with silver streaks between the veins, and one broader 
streak in the centre of the wine. The female is much paler than the male, with the borders of 
the \\ ings whitish. 

This insect is extremely variable. The colouring appears to be much influenced 
by local conditions. On the Pun Mountain, Nelson district, at an elevation of aboul 
2,700 feet, a very small light form occurs in which the sexes are almost exactly alike. 
There are only two perfect spots on the upper surface of the hind-wine's ; the other spot is 



IV.— THE PAPILI0N1NA. Ill 

rudimentary, and has no white central dot. On the under side there are no silver stripes 
near the apex of the fore-wings, and only five or six silver stripes on the marginal portions 
of the hind-wings (s^ Plate XL, figs. 3 and 7). At Kekerangu, on the " Chalk Range," 
at an elevation of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet, a similar hut slightly larger form occurs. 
On the Tableland of Mounl Arthur, Nelson district, 3,600 bo ±,600 feet above the sea- 
level, the females are paler than in cither of the preceding forms, and the males darker, 
so that the sexes arc well marked; hut there are no silvery stripes on the under side of 
the apex of the fore-wings, and usually only five stripes on the marginal portions of the 
hind-wings. Finally, in the Canterbury, Otago and Southland butterflies (southern 
form), we have the large, very dark reddish-brown coloured male insect with large ocelli, 
and the extremely pale yellow female with small ocelli, the two sexes here exhibiting the 
greatest differentiation. On the under side, the male has several small silver stripes near 
the apex of the fore-wings, and seven stripes on the marginal portions of the hind-wings. 
(See Plate XL, figs. 1, 5, and 6.) In elevated situations in Canterbury, however, I have 
taken a somewhat similar variety to that found on the Mount Arthur Tableland. I have 
also taken similar forms on .Mount Robert near Lake Rotoiti, Nelson district, these 
having, in addition, numerous white hairs on the wings near the body. 

Besides these extreme variations, which appear to he largely dependent on Local 
conditions, great variability exists with respect to the number and size of the ocelli or 
white-centred spots. In some specimens there are no ocelli on the hind-wings ; in others, 
two, three, or four very minute ones, whilst others have all four very large. Occasionally 
specimens have a minute ocellus below the large one on the fore-wings. Were it not for 
the intermediate varieties, there would probably lie little hesitation in separating the 
extreme forms of this insect into several distinct species ; hut as they are connected by 
a host of intermediate forms, it is quite impossible even to divide them into varieties. 

In a paper communicated to the ' Entomologist' in February, 1889,° by Mr. W. W. 
Smith, the author makes some interesting remarks on the variation of this butterfly, 
as observed by him in Canterbury and Otago. After pointing out the great diversity 
exhibited by different specimens in the depth of colouring, and in the number and size 
of tlie ocelli, he states that in his opinion the greatest variation occurs during the summers 
that succeed wet winters. In the year 1888 I had the opportunity of inspecting a most 
interesting series of this insect, presented by Mr. Smith to the Wellington Museum. 
They embraced specimens of very varied colouring, and included, amongst other remark- 
able forms, a male, which was entirely destitute of all ocelli, both on the fore- and on the 
hind-wings. Amongst these specimens, however, I did not see any resembling those 
I have described from Nelson and Marlborough. This collection has, I regret to say, 
since been disposed of by the Museum authorities, and cannot therefore be utilised by 
New Zealand students. 

The larva of this insect feeds on the tussock grass (Poa austmlis). Its length, when 
full grown, is about 1 inch. The top of the head is furnished with a Aery large process, 
which projects forwards. The body is much attenuated towards the tail, which is bifid. 
Tin' general colour is dull green, with a crimson line on each side and numerous alternate 
lines of yellow and white. The legs and prolegs are very small. There are four wrinkles 
on the posterior edges of each segment. 

' ' Entomologist,' xxii. 37. 



112 NEW ZEALAND MACEO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

When feeding, this caterpillar rests on a blade of the tussock, where it is very 
inconspicuous. It appears to prefer the dead or drier portions of the grass, and 
feeds and grows very slowly. It is strictly diurnal in its habits, relapsing into a 
death-like repose at night. 

The pupa is suspended by the tail to an upright blade of the tussock. In the 
specimen I reared, I was fortunate enough to witness the actual transformation, and 
during the process, observed it seizing hold of the larval skin with its posterior 
segments, its manoeuvres whilst thus engaged exactly resembling those of the pupa 
of Anosia erippus, described above by Professor Riley. 

The length of the pupa is about \ inch. Its colour is bright green, with a 
reddish line along the edge of each wing-case, and several white lines on the sides 
and back. 

The perfect insect appears from December till the end of March. It is usually 
very abundant where found, the males being more numerous than the females in the 
proportion of about five to one. It flies amongst the tussock grass in a weak and 
aimless manner. When rapidly pursued it has a habit of plunging into a tussock and 
closing its wings, where it remains quite invisible until the danger is past. 

The silver stripes on the under side of the hind-wings are very protective to the 
insect when at rest on its food-plant, the striped coloration of the larva and pupa no 
doubt serving similar protective purposes. 

Genus 2.— DODONIDIA, Butl. 

Characters as in Argyroiphenga, except that vein 11 of the fore-wings rises from upper 
margin of cell, shortly before transverse vein. 
We have one species in New Zealand. 

DODONIDIA HELMSI, Fereday. 

(Dodonidia helmsi, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst, xv. 193.) 
Plate XI., fig. 11, fig. 15 under side; Plate 111., fig. :> larva, fig. 28 pupa.) 

A single specimen of this interesting butterfly was discovered by Mr. hi. Helms, 
in 1881, on the Paparoa Range, near Greymouth, at an elevation of about 1,500 
feet above the sea-level. Until within the last three years only three other specimens 
had been captured, viz., one near Wainui-o-mata, in Mi. A. P. Buller's collection; 
one on the Dun Mountain, Nelson, at an elevation of about 'J, 500 feet, which is in 
my collection; and one on the Tableland of Mount Arthur, at about 3,300 feet, 
which was kindly given to me by Mr. C. W. Palmer. In the summer of 1894-95 
several specimens were captured by Mr. P. Marshall near Wanganui,* and during 
the same season Messrs. Smithers and Hawthorne discovered the insect in considerable 
abundance at a locality near Silverstream, in the Wellington district. During the 
two following summers additional specimens were obtained near Silverstream, and I 
was fortunate enough to discover there a number of specimens of the larva, which 
furnished the material for the illustration and description of the preparatory stages 
of the insect given in this work. 

The expansion of the wings is about 2 inches. On the upper side all the wings are dark 
brown The fore-wings hare two broad bands <;/' yellowish-orange, the miter one containing a 



IV.— THE PAPILIONINA. 113 

small patch of dark brown near the casta, which touches a white-centred black ocellus. The hind- 
wings hare one large patch of yello-wish-ora?ige containing two ocelli; a large ocellus, surrounded 
by a broad ring of reddish-orange, is situated on the tornus; the tornus is produced into two 
very broad but short tails, which arc bordered with whire cilia. On the under side the fore- 
wings are light ochreous-yellow ; there is a shaded brown patch at the base; the termen is 
broadly bordered with brown, the border containing a silver streak; two broad brown patches 
are situated on the costa, the outer one terminated by a small ocellus, ami enclosing a silvery 
patch near the apex of the wing. The hind-icings arc silvery, narrowly bordered with deep 
reddish-brown, with five deep reddish-broivn stripes running from the costa toioards the tornus ; 
the fourth stripe from the base of the wing contains three ocelli surrounded by yellow rings; 
a conspicuous ocellus is situated at the tornus, surrounded by a broad orange-red ring. 

This insect appears to vary a little in the extent of the yellowish-orange colouring 
of the upper side. It also varies in size, specimens from the North Island being 
slightly larger than those from the South Island. 

The larva feeds on a species of sedge (Galinia setifolia), which always grows 
abundantly in the birch forests, where the butterflies are found. When full grown the 
length of this caterpillar is about 1 \ inches. Its body is much attenuated at each end 
and rather stout in the middle; the head and tail are bifid; there are numerous 
straight, shallow, transverse wrinkles on each segment, especially towards the head. 
The colour is green, with a number of fine, paler and darker green, dorsal and lateral 
lines ; the head and thirteenth segment are yellowish. The legs are very minute, and 
the prolegs of moderate size. It is extremely susceptible to the attacks of a Dipterous 
parasite. In fact, out of thirty larvae kept by Mr. Hawthorne and myself, no less than 
75 per cent, were thus destroyed. This larva feeds on the leaves of the sedge, 
eating out long notches parallel to the veins of the leaf. These notches are the 
best guides to follow in searching for the larva, as the colouring of the caterpillar 
renders its discovery amongst the food-plant extremely difficult. The larva? should 
be looked for during the end of December or the beginning of January. 

The pupa is rather stout, light green, with the edge of the wing-case and 
the prominences formed by the back and palpi, edged with crimson and white. It 
is suspended by the tail to an)' firm object in the neighbourhood of the sedge. 

The perfect insect appears in February. It frequents sunny glades in the birch 
forest, usually at considerable elevations above the sea-level. Mr. Helms informs me 
that he has seen specimens near Greymouth in October, and hence concludes that 
there are two broods in the year. The butterfly is very difficult to capture, as it 
has a most provoking habit of resting on the foliage of the birch- trees, just out of 
the collector's reach. I am unable to explain the object of the remarkable colouring 
of the under side of this insect, but it is probably protective, although in what way 
has yet to be discovered. 

Genus 8.— EEEBIA, Dalm. 

"Eyes glabrous. Chili of antenna' abrupt." (Plate I., tigs. 25, 26, and 21 neuration of 
Erebia pluto.) 

"An extensive and essentially Alpine genus inhabiting the mountains of Europe, 
Asia, North America, and South Africa. Pupa unattached amongst stem bases of 
grass." — (Meyrick.) 

We have two species in New Zealand. 

15 



114 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEPA. 

EEEBIA PLUTO, Fereday. 

(Ercbia pluto, Fereday. Erebia mcnila, Hewitson, Ent. Mo. Mag. xii. 10 (1871). Orcina othello, 
Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. viii. 302, 301, pi. ix. (1876). Percnodaimon pluto, Butl., Ent. Mo. Mag. 
xii. 153 (1876) ; Catalogue of N. Z. Butterflies, 10.) 

(Plate XL, fig. 8 J, 9 5, 10 under side.) 

This fine butterfly has occurred plentifully on many mountain-tops in the South 
Island, from Nelson to Lake Wakatipu. It has never been observed in the North 
Island. 

Tin 1 expansion of the wings of the male is If inches, of the female 2 inches. On the 
upper side all the wings are a very rich bronzy -black. The fore-wings hare a paler patch near 
the apex, containing tin, small, and three large black ocelli with white centres; these ocelli are 
usually joined together. On the under side all the wings are considerably paler and greyer. 
The hind-wings have a series of pale spots near the termen, and a paler shade across the 
middle. 

The insect varies chiefly in the number of ocelli. On the upper side of the 
fore-wings there are sometimes only four, the minute ocellus on the costa being 
absent, whilst occasionally a small extra ocellus appears below the normal series. 
On the under side this last-mentioned ocellus is very frequently, but not invariably, 
present. In some female specimens an extremely minute ocellus may be detected 
on the upper surface of the hind-wings near the termen. On the under side of the 
hind-wings in both sexes the series of pale terminal spots are often absent, and the 
general depth of the colouring varies considerably. 

Mr. Fereday has described and figured a very interesting variation occurring in 
the structure of the costal veins of this species,* vein 11 of the fore-wings sometimes 
running into 12 (see Plate I., fig. 26), and sometimes being entirely absent (fig. 25). 
After reading Mr. Fereday's article I examined the specimens in my own collection, and 
found that all those taken on Mount Arthur and on Mount Peel, in the Nelson district, 
had veins 11 and 12 joined, whilst the two specimens I took on Mount Enys, 
Castle Hill, West Coast Road, had vein 11 absent. As, however, Mr. Fereday has 
specimens exhibiting both forms of neuration, from Castle Hill and from Mount 
Hutt, I do not think it likely that the peculiarity is confined to butterflies from 
any particular locality. Like Mr. Fereday, I have observed that the specimens 
having veins 11 and 12 joined, are smaller than those having vein 11 absent. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March. It frequents 
shingle slopes on mountains, at elevations ranging from 4,000 to 6,000 feet above 
the sea-level. Sometimes the butterflies occur in considerable numbers, flying in a 
lazy, aimless manner in the scorching sunshine, but instantly retreating into crevices 
between the stones when the sun is obscured. I have observed that this species is 
most abundant in the neighbourhood of the carpet grass, on which I fully anticipate 
its larva feeds. It seldom, however, settles on this grass, preferring to alight on the 
shingle, which, owing to the rarefied air existing at such high elevations, soon 
becomes intensely heated by the sun's rays. 

When disturbed this insect flies with considerable rapidity and thus often eludes 
the net, so that the capture of a good series of specimens on a rugged mountain- 
top is usually very exciting, if not actually dangerous work. As with many other 

* -Trans. N. Z. Inst.' xv. 197. 



TV THE PAPTLIONINA. 115 

insects, mountain ranges are more prolific in this butterfly than isolated peaks. 
Mount Peel, situated to the west of Mount Arthur, is the best locality I know oi for 
this and many ether Alpine species. Its gentle slopes enable the collector to work 
with perfect ease and safety, whilst the patches of rich soil occurring nearly to the 
top of the mountain support an unusually varied Alpine flora of great interest. 

EEEBIA BUTLEBI, Fereday. 

(Erebiola butleri, Fereday, Trans. X. Z. Inst. xii. 264; Catalogue of N. Z. Butterflies, 19.) 
(Plate XT.. ti S . 11 $, 12 ?, 13 under side.) 

This interesting butterfly was described from three dilapidated specimens captured 
by Mr. J. D. Enys at Whitcombe's Pass, Canterbury, on March 8, 1879, at about 
4,000 feet above the sea-level. From that time T believe no other specimens had been 
fmmd until January, L894, when I took quite a large number on the Humboldt 
Range, at the head of Lake Wakatipu, at elevations ranging from 4,000 to 5,000 feet 
above the sea-level. 

The expansion of the wings of the mule i> 1| inches, of the female \\ inches. On the upper 
side all the icings of the male are smoky-brown ; the fore-wings have a large blur},- ocellus near 
the apex, enclosing tie,, white dots, followed by a smaller ocellus toioards the dorsum; the hind-icings 
liaee three Mack spots near the termen, sometimes enclosing white dots. Occasionally these ocelli 
are surrounded by a patch of deep reddish-brown. The female is much paler, with large patches 
of yellowish-brown surrounding the ocelli. On the under side the fore-wings of the male are smoky- 
brown, with an irregular blotch of reddish-brown near the apex, surrounding a small white-centred 
black ocellus. The hind-icings are dark reddish-brown, with seceral conspicuous black-edged silvery 
markings, and four yelloiuish-red spots mar the termen. The under side of the female is very 
much paler. 

This butterfly varies considerably on the upper side in the number and size of the 
ocelli, and in the extent of the reddish-brown markings which surround them ; on the 
under side the silvery spots on the hind-wings are also variable. 

The perfect insect has been taken in January and March. It evidently frequents 
mountains in the South Island, at elevations of about 4,000 feet, but does not appear 
to be generally distributed in such localities. It seldom settles on the shingle, 
mostly resting on the snow grass, on which its larva probably feeds. It is a smaller 
insect than E. pluto, and flies much more feebly. These characteristics will at once 
enable the collector to distinguish it from E. pluto when on the wing. 

Immediately a cloud ohscures the sun these butterflies retreat into the tufts of 
the snow grass, remaining closely hidden there until the sun shines out again. This 
circumstance makes the capture of the insect, even in a favourable locality, a matter 
of considerable uncertainty, as bright sunshine is more often the exception than the 
rule on the summits of high mountains. 

Family 3 — LYC^ENID^. 

•• Anterior legs developed, but tarsi of J more or less abbreviated, or with one or both claws 
absent ; posterior tibia? without middle spurs. Fore-wings with vein 7 absent, S and 9 stalked or 
coincident. Hind-wings without prsecostal spur." (Plate L, figs. 15, 16, neuration of Chrysophanus 
salustius.) 

"The family is large and very generally distributed. The species are of moderate 
s i/e or more often rather small, usually blue, dark brown, or coppery-orange in colouring, 
often with series of small black pale-ringed spots on lower surface. 



116 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

" Ovum flattened — spherical or subcylindrical, reticulated and sometimes ribbed, 
seldom smooth. Larva stout, with few hairs. Pupa attached by tail and a central 
belt of silk, or sometimes unattached or subterranean." — (Meyriek.) 

We have two genera represented in New Zealand, viz. : — 
1. Chrysophanus. 2. Lycena. 

Genus 1.— CHRYSOPHANUS, Hb. 

" Eyes glabrous. Club of antennae elongate. Fore-wings with vein 6 separate, 8 and 9 stalked." 
(Plate I., figs. 15 and 16 neuration of C. salustius). 

"An extensive and nearly cosmopolitan genus. Larva short, stout, attenuated at 
extremities, with short hairs. Pupa attached by the tail and central belt of silk, or 
sometimes unattached on the ground." — (Meyriek.) 

There are three New Zealand species. 

CHRYSOPHANUS SALUSTIUS, Fabr. 

(Chrysophanus salustms, Fabr., Butler, Butterflies of N. Z., Trans. N. Z. Inst. x. 263. Chrysophanus 

rauparaha, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. ix. 460. Chrysophamis maui, ib. x. 252.) 

(Plate XII., fig. 18 <?, 19 ?, 'JO and 21 under side; Plate XIII., figs. '2, 3, 4, and 5 varieties.) 

This pretty little butterfly appears to be very common in most parts of New 
Zealand. I have records of its occurrence in abundance at various localities, from 
Napier southwards to Invercargill. 

Tin' expansion of the wings varies from 1 to li inches. On the upper -tide all the ivings are 
brilliant shining copper, with black markings. Fore-wings with three spots near the middle, then 
a row of black spots, often forming a band nearly parallel with the termen, another row on 
the termen, generally touching the narrow black border of the wing. Hind-wings resembling fore- 
wings, except that there is only one elongate spot in the centre, and the terminal series of 
spots is nearly always separated from the black border. In the female the black spots are 
united and form bands, those on the termen often having violet or blue centres. The veins in 
both sexes are indicated by black lines, which are often double in the male, when the vein itself 
is coppery. On the under side the fore-wings are orange-brown, bordered with yellow ; the spots 
resemble those of the upper side, except that the terminal series are generally faint or obsolete 
towards the costa. The hind-wings vary from light yellow to dull brown ; the spots are dull 
greyish, the posterior series often having white centres. 

From the foregoing it may be seen that the variation in this insect is considerable. 
After a careful examination of a large number of specimens taken at various localities 
in both North and South Islands, I am, however, unable to find characters of sufficient 
constancy to entitle any of the forms to specific rank. The most striking of these 
varieties appears to be that described by Mr. Bates as Chrysophanus feredayi.® (See 
Plate XIII. , fig. 2, upper side; Plate XII., fig. 21, under side.) On the upper surface 
it has the central series of spots almost forming a band in the male, and the coppery 
ground colour is paler than in the typical form. On the under side the borders of 
the fore-wings, and the whole of the hind-wings are dull brown. This form closely 
resembles C. rauparaha, Fereday. f C. maui, Fereday, is evidently that variety of the 
male having the veins bordered with two fine black lines. Mr. Fereday states that he 
has never been able to find the female of his G. maui. This is readily accounted for by 
the fact, that the female of C. maui is nothing more than the female of G. salustius. 

Recently two very remarkable aberrations of C. salustius have come under my 

Ent. Mon. Mag. iv. p. 53. \ 'Trans N. Z. Inst.' ix. IliO ; x. '252. 



IV.— THE PAPILIONINA. 117 

notice ; one captured by Mr. Hawthorne at Karori, in which the hind-wings are almost 
entirely suffused with blackish-brown, excepting a small patch of copper colour near 
the centre, and two patches on the termen. Another specimen, taken by Mr. drapes 
near Paraparaumu, has the fore-wings also suffused with blackish-brown, except near 
the middle, where there are five coppery patches between the veins. On the under 
side there are six large oblong spots near the termen of the fore-wings, and a series 
of dusky oblong spots on the hind-wings. (See Plate XIII., fig. 3, fig. 4 under side.) 
Plate XIII., fig. 5, represents another variety discovered by Mr. Grapes on the coast 
near Paikakariki, in the Wellington district. It is remarkable for the bright blue 
terminal spots which are present in both sexes. 

The eggs of C. salustius, when first deposited, are pale green with yellow 
reticulations, the whole egg having a honeycombed appearance when magnified. They 
become uniform pale yellow before hatching. The young larva is shaped somewhat 
like a wood-louse. The head is quite hidden by the three anterior segments, which 
are much larger than the rest. After the first moult the larva becomes bright green, 
with a crimson line down the back ; the head is then larger, and the three anterior 
segments considerably reduced. Unfortunately the life-history could not be investigated 
beyond this point, as the larvae all died. The time of year when this occurred was 
late autumn, and it therefore seems probable that the larva? hibernate and undergo 
their transformation early the following spring. 

The perfect insect first appears in November and continues abundant until the 
middle or end of February. Specimens of what I believe to be a second brood may 
be taken in March and April if the weather be fine, but in stormy seasons these 
are frequently not observed. I have also noticed that the autumnal specimens are 
usually smaller and paler in colour than those captured in the spring. 

This butterfly frequents open situations, and in fine, sunny weather it is often 
very common. 

CHRYSOPHANUS BNYSII, Butl. 

(Chi'ysophamis enysii, Butler, Ent. Mo. Mag. xiii. 153 (1876).) 

(Plate XII., fig. 22 $, 23 5, 24 under side.) 

This species is tolerably common in the Wellington district, and I expect it will 
be found to occur in most localities in the North Island. I have also taken the 
insect at Nelson, but have not heard of its capture elsewhere in the South Island. 

The expansion of the wings varies from 1 to 1^ inches. On the upper surface both sexes 
resemble some of the females of Chrysophanus salustius, except that the dark markings are very 
much broader, and the coppery colour is paler and less lustrous. On the under side the fore- 
wings are pale yellowish-brown, bordered with darker brown, with three black spots near the 
middle, and a chain of hlack spots beyond the middle. The hind-wings arc yellow, with a very 
large irregular patch of purplish brown extending over the costal and terminal portions. 

This insect varies chiefly in the extent of the dark markings on the upper side, 
which sometimes very much encroach on the golden ground colour. The spaces 
between veins 2, 3, and 4, near their origin are sometimes yellow and sometimes 
black, but, as every intermediate form exists, cannot be distinguished as species. 
Mr. Fereday regards the form with the black spaces as C. feredayi, Bates. As 
previously stated, however, I am inclined to think that C. feredayi, Bates, is the 
same form as C. rauparaha, Fereday. 



118 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

This butterfly is essentially a forest-loving species, and may sometimes be taken 
quite plentifully in sunny openings on fine clays, during December and January. It 
is not nearly so common as C. salustius, and I do not think that there is more 
than a single brood in a season. 

CHKYSOPHANUS BOLDENAKUM, White. 

(Lycana boldenanm, White, Proc. Ent. Soc, Ser. 3, 1, p. 26 (1862). Chrysophanus boldenarum, Butl., 

Zool. Erebus and Terror, Ins. Lep., p. 29, n. 8, pi. 8, figs. 8. 9 (1874). 

(Plate XII., figs. 13, 14, 3 varieties, 15 under side of S • 16 2 , 17 under side of ? .) 

This brilliant little butterfly is very common in most localities in the South Island. 
In the North Island it has occurred at Lakes Wairarapa and Taupo. 

The expansion of the wings is § inch. On the upper side tin- male has all the wings brown, 
tinged with the most brilliant glistening purple. The fore-wings have two or three black spots near 
the middle, a curved series beyond the middle, and on the termen. The hind-wings have two black 
spots near the middle, a series beyond the middle, and a terminal series, generally with blur centres. 
All the wings are narrowly bordered with black. The female is pale yellowish-brown, the spots 
resemble those of the male, except that all the marginal series have bright purple or blue centres. 
On the under side the fore-wings of both sexes are pale yellow, bordered witli slaty-blue: the spots 
are the same as on the upper side. The hind-wings are brownish-grey in male, slaty-grey in female, 
with the basal portion darker, and the spots of the upper side always indicated. 

This insect is extremely variable, but I do not think it likely that any of the 
numerous forms will prove sufficiently constant to be regarded as distinct species. 
The male varies in the size and number of the black spots, many of which are often 
absent ; in the extent of the purple sheen which is sometimes absent from the hind- 
wings, sometimes partially absent from the fore-wings, and sometimes extends over 
the whole of both pairs of wings ; also in the colour of such sheen, which often inclines 
towards blue. Some specimens are much paler than < it hers, and so far as my experience 
goes, these are chiefly found at considerable elevations ; in such specimens, the ground 
colouring inclines towards yellow or orange, and the purple sheen is very brilliant, and 
extends over the whole of the wings. The female of this form is proportionately paler. 
Other specimens have the hind-wings almost black with no purple sheen, whilst in 
others the purple sheen remains. Another form has the usual markings, but the hind- 
wings are deep orange-brown, without purple sheen, which is also absent from the outer 
portions of the fore-wings. One female in my collection is dull brown, with yellow 
markings between the two rows of black spots. The under side is still more variable. 
One very striking form has only the basal portions of the fore-wings yellow, the rest 
of the ground colour is pale bluish-grey, and the spots black. On the hind-wings there 
are a number of black spots near the base ; then an irregular band of black, and then 
a double row of marginal spots. An almost unlimited number of varieties appears to 
connect this form with one, in which all the markings on the hind-wings are nearly 
obsolete. The specimens of this insect taken in each district appear to exhibit differences 
from those taken elsewhere, but specimens also differ from the same district, so that 
at present we are unable to detect any well-marked local variation, or topomorphism, 
as it has been termed. It is consequently highly desirable that collectors should 
endeavour to obtain specimens from as many localities as possible, so that the nature 
of the variation of this butterfly may be better understood. 

Mr. Fereday states Q that after carefully examining a patch of Dotiatiu nova- 

+ ' Trans. N. Z. Inst.,' vol. x. 259. 



IV.— THE PAPILIONINA. 119 

zealandice, a plant he had noticed much frequented by this butterfly, he succeeded in 
finding a larva which there could be little doubt would have given rise to this insect, 
had it lived. The following is taken from his description : The caterpillar is shaped 
like a wood-louse, hairy, and pale green. There is a series of conical purplish spots 
down the back, edged first with white, and then with dull red. On the sides there is 
a series of pale pinkish oblique stripes, blended with dull red towards the spiracles. 

The perfect insect is very common in dry, stony places, generally near river-beds, 
during January, February and March. It flies only a short distance when disturbed, 
but is very quick on the wing, and hence difficult to catch until one becomes accus- 
tomed to it. In some places these little butterflies are so abundant that they take 
wing like a swarm of blow-flies. They seldom open their wings whilst at rest, so 
that when perched on the ground they are very inconspicuous. 

Genus 2.— LYC.ENA, F. 

" Eyes hairy. Club of autennse elongate. Fore-wings with vein 6 separate. 8 and 9 stalked. 

"A large genus of nearly universal distribution. Imago usually with a horny apical 
hook on anterior tibia 1 . Larva short, stout, attenuated at extremities, with short hairs. 
Pupa attached by tail and often a central belt of silk, or unattached or subterranean. "- 
(Meyrick.) 

Represented in New Zealand by two species. 

LYC.ENA PHCEBE, Murray. 
na phabe, Murray, Ent. Mo. Mag., lsTM, 107.) 
Plate XII., fig. 10, 11 under side.) 

This little butterfly is extremely abundant in the neighbourhood of Nelson. I 
have also taken it in plenty in several localities in the Wellington district, and suspect 
it is common throughout the North Island. In other parts of the South Island its 
place appears to be taken by L. oxleyi. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is 1 inch, of the female i inch. On the upper side all 
the wings are pale blue, broadly bordered with dull brown. The cilia are white, faintly barred with 
brownish. On the under side nil the wings, are pale slaty-grey. There is a faint blackish spot, edged 
with white, near the middle of the fore-wings, and two rows of similar spots near the termen. The 
hind-wings have several very faint white-edged spots near the base, a row near the middle, and 
another row almost entirely white near the termen. 

The perfect insect frequents waste grounds and sandhills, generally beside roads 
and river-beds, and when found is usually very common. It is on the wing from the 
beginning of October until the end of March. 

LYCkEXA OXLEYI, Feld. 
{Lyceum oxleyi, Felder, Eeise de Novara Lep. ii., '280, pi. 35, tig. 6, 1865.) 
(Plate XII., fig. 12 under side. 
According to Mr. Enys * this butterfly is common in both islands. I have taken 
specimens in the Canterbury and Nelson districts. 

On the upper side this species can only be distinguished from the preceding by its somewhat 
brighter colour, and by the cilia which are more sharply barred with brown. On the under side the 
whole of the fore-wings, and the central portions of the hind-wings between the outer and inner series 
of spots, are much darker and browner than in L. phcebe ; the spots themselves are also considerably- 
darker, and the central series of the hind-wings is almost black. A careful examination, however, 
shows that the markings are practically identical in both species, although of different degrees of 
* '( ttalogue of N. Z. Butterflies,' 22. 



120 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

intensity. In view of the great variability, which many species of this genus are known to exhibit in 
other countries, I am inclined to think that this butterfly's claim to specific distinction is a very 
slender one. 

The perfect insect may be taken in similar situations to Lyc&na phcebe. 

KEPUTED NEW ZEALAND BUTTERFLIES. 
The following species are recorded by various observers as having occurred in 
New Zealand. In nearly every case they are only represented by single specimens. 
They cannot, in my opinion, be regarded as properly belonging to the fauna : — 

f. HAMADRYAS ZOILUS, :: Fabr. 

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. On the upper side all the wings are black, 
becoming brown towards the base ; the fore-wings have three dull white spots near the 
apex ; the hind-wings have the whole of the central portions white. 

Stated by Dieffenbach to occur in New Zealand, probably in error, as it has not 
since been observed. An Australian species. Mr. W. W. Smith, however, informs 
me, that his eldest son recently saw near Ashburton a specimen of what he believed 
to be this butterfly ; but as he was unable to capture it he cannot speak with any 
degree of certainty. 

2. EUPLCLE sp? 

The expansion of the wings is 2| inches. On the upper side all the wings are dull, 
brownish-blauk, with a series of large white terminal spots. 

Two or three specimens of this insect are stated by Mr. T. W. Kirk to have 
been taken near Flat Point on the east coast of the North Island, but no further 
details are forthcoming. The late Mr. Olliff, to whom I forwarded a sketch of the 
insect, informed me that it was not represented in the Sydney collections of 
Australian and South Sea Island butterflies, but he thought it might be a Malayan 
species of Euploce. 

3. VANESSA ATALANTA.+ L. 

The expansion of the wings is from '1\ to 2f inches. " The fore-wings are black, with a 
broad deep red central band, and with one large and five small white spots near the 
apex. The hind-wings are black, with a broad deep red band at the termen, in which are 
four black spots; at the tornus is a large blue-and-black spot." t 

Mr. T. W. Kirk states § that he captured a specimen of this familiar English 
butterfly in the Wellington Botanical Gardens, in the summer of 1881. On a 
subsequent occasion he saw several others. No specimens have since been detected. 

4. VANESSA URTIOE, L. 

The expansion of the wings is from '2 to 2| inches. "The fore-wings are reddish-orange 
with three large black spots on the costa (the third followed by a white spot), two smaller 
black spots near the centre, and one large one on the dorsum ; a dark border, containing cresentic 
blue spots, runs along the termen. The hind-wings are black at the base, then reddish-orange, 
with a blue-spotted dark border along the termen." [I 

Mr. Kirk states H that he also obtained specimens of this very common English 
butterfly during the same season and in the same locality as Vanessa atalnnta. None 
have been seen by other observers. 

♦ ' Catalogue of New Zealand Butterflies,' 18, 28, PI. II., fig. 1. 1 Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 550. 

; Stainton's 'British Butterflies and Moths,' 103, PI. II., fig. 1. § Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 550. 

II Stainton's 'British Butterflies and Moths,' 106. " Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 550. 



IV.— THE PAPILIONINA. L21 

5. CATOPSILIA CAT1LLA,' Cramer. 

The expansion of the wings is nearly 3 inches. On the upper side all the wings of 
the male are pale sulphur-yellow, with a minute brown mark at the apex. The female is paler 
with a brown spot in the centre of the fore-wings, and a chain of brown spots on the terrnen 
towards the apex. 

A single male specimen of this butterfly was captured in the grounds of St. 
John's College, Auckland, and is now in the Auckland Museum. The species is very 
common in Australia, and as this is the only specimen observed it was no doubt 
accidentally introduced from that country on board a steamer. 

• ■ Catalogue of N. Z. Butterflies ,' 17. 23, PI. IV.. figs. S, 4. 



16 



( 122 ) 



V .— T HE PYRALIDINA 

Not dealt with in this volume. 



VI.— THE PSYCH IN A. 



The Psijchina are distinguished by the following characters : — 

"Eyes glabrous. Maxillary palpi rudimentary or obsolete (yet sometimes well marked in 
pupa). Posterior tibiae, with spurs very short, middle spurs often absent. Fore-wings with vein 
lb furcate, lc usually developed, 5 more or less approximated to 4. Hind-wings with frenulum, 
retinaculum often very broad, lc present, 8 connected or anastomosing with cell." (See Plate I., 
figs. 30, 31 neuration of CEceticus omnivorus.) 

" This ancient group, which furnishes the origin of the five preceding, is not 
now very prominent, though much more numerous in warm regions. 

"Imago with fore-wings more or less elongate-triangular, hind-wings ovate, often 
rather small. 

" Larva with 10 prolegs, usually with few hairs. 

"Pupa with segments 8-11 free, usually 7 also (except in Psychidce), in male 12 
also ; protruded from cocoon in emergence." — (Meyrick.) 

The Psychina and Micropterygina are included amongst the Micros by most 
modern authors. I have, however, described and figured certain conspicuous and 
interesting species belonging to both these groups. The insects in question have, 
until so very recently, been regarded as Macros, that I think it would be a mistake 
to omit them in the present volume. There can, however, be no question that the 
modern view is the correct one, and that notwithstanding the large size of some of the 
species, they are really closely allied to those Micro-Lepidoptera, with which they are 
now associated. 

Of the Psychina we have one family represented in New Zealand — the Psychidce. 

Family 1.— PSYCHIDCE. 

" Head densely rough-haired. Ocelli large. Tongue obsolete. Antennas half the length of 
the fore-wings or less, in male strongly bi-pectinated to apex. Labial palpi very short, hairy. 
Thorax densely hairy above and beneath. Abdomen, femora, and tibiae densely hairy, posterior 
tibiae without middle spurs, end spurs extremely short. Fore-wings with vein lr* anastomosing 
with lb before middle ; lc (if present) coincident with 16 beyond middle, 7 absent. Hind- 
wings, with vein 8, connected by bar with upper margin of cell. Female apterous, without legs or 
developed antennae. 



VI.— THE PRYCHINA. 123 

" A rather small family of universal distribution, but commoner in warm countries. 
Male imago with thinly sealed wings, without markings; flight strong and swift, some- 
times in sunshine. The female is almost wholly helpless ; the abdomen is at first 
greatly distended with eggs, and ultimately shrivels up. 

"Ovum oval, smooth. Larva inhabiting a strong portable silken case, covered 
with fragments of stick or refuse. Pupa within the larval case." — (Meyrick.) 

There are two genera in New Zealand closely allied to each other. 
1. (Eceticus. -J. Okophoka. 

Genus I.— (ECETICUS, Guild. 

" Ocelli present. Antennae ',, in male strongly bi-pectinated, much more shortly on apical half. 
Labial palpi extremely short, rough-haired. Abdomen in male very elongate, roughly hairy. Legs 
hairy, tibiae without spurs, posterior tarsi extremely short and stout. Fore-wings with veins 4 and 
5 short-stalked, 7 sometimes out of 9, 8 and 9 stalked, forked parting-vein well defined. Hind- 
wines with veins 4 and 5 stalked, forked parting-vein well defined, <s connected by bar with cell 
beyond middle. An additional vein (9) rising from 8 beyond bar, another (10) from 8 before 
bar, and another (11) from base of costa running into 8 before 10." (See Plate I., ties. 30, 31.) 

"This generic name was wrongly spelt Oiketicus by its originator and others, for 
which there is no possible justification. I have corrected it." — (Meyrick.) 

Although I have made several examinations of fully denuded wings of GEJ. 
omnivoru s, I have been unable to discover any trace of the additional veins 
mentioned by Mr. Meyrick. The hair-like scales which clothe the wings of this 
insect are very long and slender, and might easily be mistaken for a short vein, if 
placed in the requisite position. 1 am disposed to think that the examination of 
undenuded specimens has led to the discrepancy between the results. 

We have one species. 

(ECETICUS OMNIVOEUS, Fereday. 

(Liothula omnivora, Fereday, Trans. X. Z. Inst, x., 260, pi. ix. CEccticus omnivorus, Meyr., 

Trans. X. Z. Inst. xxii. 212.) 

Plate XIII., lie. 6 S; Plate III., fig. 26, larva in its ease; fig, 25 ditto withdrawn from case.) 

This interesting species is seldom seen as an imago in the natural state, although 
the cases constructed by its larva are of common occurrence. Specimens of these cases 
have been noticed at several localities between Palmerston, in the North Island, and 
Invercargill, in the South Island, so that apparently the insect is common, and generally 
distributed throughout New Zealand. 

The expansion of the wanes of the male is from 1-j to 1A inches. The fore-wings an very 
elongate and narrow. All the wings are blackish-brown, and sparsely covered with scales, the hind 
pair being semi-transparent. The body is very hairy, and deep black, The antenna' are broadly 
bi-pectinate at the base, becoming almost filiform towards the apex. The female insect is apterous, 
having a close superficial resemblance to a large maggot. The head and thorax are very small, and 
the legs and antenna; rudimentary. The extremity of the body is furnished with a two-jointed 
ovipositor, and there are a few scattered yellowish scales on various parts of the insect. Its length is 
about 1 inch. 

The eggs of this species are deposited inside the old case, which the female insect 
never leaves during the whole of her life. The young larva when first hatched is about 
I inch in length. Its head and three anterior segments are corneous and much larger 
than the others, which are rather soft with the exception of the last one. These little 



124 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

larvse are extremely active, and immediately after hatching leave the old case, and roam 
in all directions over the tree, letting themselves down from branch to branch by 
silken threads. They carry the posterior portion of their body elevated in the air, 
walking whilst doing so by means of their strong thoracic legs. 

The food-plants of this species are numerous. The following are a few of them : 
Manuka {Leptospermum scopariwm and ericoides, Cupressus macrocarpa, Pinus insignis), 
and various species of willow, &c. These, it will be observed, include several introduced 
trees. In fact, the insect is a very general feeder. About three days after leaving the 
egg, the little caterpillar constructs a minute, conical-shaped, silken case, which it carries 
almost in an upright position on its posterior segments. Later on in life this case 
becomes too heavy to be held vertically, and is afterwards dragged along by the larva, 
and often allowed to hang downwards. The case has two apertures — a large one in 
front, through which the head of the larva is projected, and a smaller one at the posterior 
extremity, which allows the pellets of excrement to fall out of the case, as soon as they 
are evacuated. 

Owing to the apterous and completely helpless condition of the female imago, it 
is evident that the dispersal of this insect must take place in the larval state. 
Distribution is of course quite impossible without a female being transported in some 
way, and from observations made on a good many larvae of various ages, I am disposed 
to think that the migration of this insect to new localities takes place at an early age, 
possibly soon after its emergence from the egg. On this account I think that the 
occurrence of the moth in both North and South Islands is of great interest, as it would 
seem to indicate the existence of some connection between the two islands, at a period not 
sufficiently remote to have allowed any appreciable modification to take place in the 
insect's structure and habits. At the same time, it should be borne in mind, that the 
protection afforded the larva by its case, and its ability to feed on so many different 
plants, may have rendered any modification unnecessary for the preservation of the 
species during recent times. The length of the full-grown caterpillar is about 1 inch. 
The head is dull yellow speckled with black. The first three segments are very hard, 
dark brown, with numerous white markings. The remaining segments are considerably 
thickened near the middle of the insect, rudimentary prolegs being present on the seventh, 
ei°hth, ninth, and tenth segments of the larva. The anal prolegs are very strong, and are 
furnished with numerous sharp booklets, which retain the larva very firmly in its case. As 
the caterpillar grows, it increases the length of its domicile from the anterior, causing it 
gradually to assume a more tubular form, tapering towards the posterior aperture, which is 
enlarged from time to time. The outside is covered with numerous fragmentary leaves 
and twigs of various sizes, placed longitudinally on the case, and, frequently, near the 
anterior aperture the materials, owing to their recent selection, are fresh and green. The 
interior is lined with soft, smooth silk of a light brown colour, the thickness of the whole 
fabric being about the same as that of an ordinary kid glove, and so strong that it is 
impossible to tear it, or indeed to cut it, except with sharp instruments. The size of the 
ease, when the caterpillar is mature, varies considerably, ranging from 2j to 3 inches or 
more in length, and about I inch in diameter, the widest portion being a little behind the 
anterior aperture. 

During the day the larva closes the entrance, and spins a Loop of very strong silk 



VI.— THE PSYGHINA. 125 

over a twig, the ends being joined to the upper edges of the case on each side ; in this 
way it hangs suspended, the caterpillar lying snugly within. I have often known a 
larva to remain thus for over three weeks without moving, and afterwards resume feeding 
as before ; this probably occurs whilst the inmate is engaged in changing its skin. At 
night the larva' may be seen busily engaged : they project the head and first four 
segments of the body beyond the ease, and walk about with considerable rapidity, often 
lowering themselves by means of silken threads; the only locomotive organs are, of 
course, their strong thoracic legs, which appear to easily fulfil their double function of 
moving both larva and case. If disturbed, these insects at, once retreat into their cases, 
closing the anterior aperture with a silken cord, which is kept in readiness for the 
purpose, and pulled from the inside by the retreating larva. This operation is most 
rapidly performed, as the upper edges of the case are ilexible, and thus fold closely 
together, completely obstructing the entrance. When full grown, this caterpillar fastens 
its case to a branch with a loop of strong silk, which is drawn very tight, preventing the 
case from swinging when the plant is moved by the wind, and also rendering the insect's 
habitation more inconspicuous, by causing it to resemble a broken twig. The anterior 
aperture is completely closed, the loose edges being drawn together and fastened like a 
bag. The posterior end of the case is twisted up for some little distance above the 
extremity, thus completely closing the opening there situated. It is lined inside with 
a layer of very soft silk spun loosely over the sides, and partly rilling up each end. 
In the centre of this the pupa lies with its head towards the lower portion of the case, 
the old larval skin being thrust backwards amongst the loose silk above the insect. 

The male and female pups may very easily be distinguished. The male pupa is 
rather attenuated, and has all the organs of the future moth plainly indicated on the 
integument, as is usual with lepidopterous pupa 1 . The female pupa, on the contrary, is 
merely a chain of segments, with a few faint indications of rudimentary organs on the 
anterior extremity. It is, moreover, much larger than the male pupa. 

The insect remains in this condition during the winter months. About September 
the male pupa works its way down to the lower end of the case, forces open the old 
aperture there situated, and projects the head and thorax, the pupa being secured from 
falling by the spines on its posterior segments, which retain a firm hold in the silk. Its 
anterior portion then breaks open, and the moth makes its escape, clinging to the 
outside of its old habitation, and drying its wings. 

The perfect insect must be about from September till December, but 1 have never 
then observed it. The only specimen I have seen was noticed flying very rapidly in the 
street in Wellington, in July. I was at first unable to tell what species it was, as it had 
a most unusual appearance on the wing, but its subsequent near approach enabled me 
to ascertain for certain that it was a specimen of this insect. In captivity 1 have also 
noticed the extreme activity of the male when first emerged. Indeed this moth is so 
vivacious, that it often happens, owing to the emergence usually taking place very early 
in the morning, that specimens are more or less injured by their efforts to escape, before 
they are discovered in the breeding cage. This restless energy of the male is no doubt 
essential to the insect's well-being, as the females, hidden away in their cases and 
incapable of any movement, must of necessity be very hard to discover. The power of 
locomotion lost in the one sex is thus doubled in the other. Considering the protection 



126 NEW ZEALAND MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

afforded this insect by the case, which it inhabits during its preparatory stages, its 
enormous mortality from the attacks of a parasitic dipteron (Eurigaster marginattcs) 
is very remarkable. In this connection the following analysis of 38 cases, gathered 
at random, may be of interest : — 
2(3 had parasites. 

8 were dead. 

2 contained eggs. 

2 contained living pupa?, 1 male and 1 female respectively. 
Amongst some of these parasites I once obtained a specimen, which was in its turn 
infested by a secondary or hyper-parasite, belonging to the genus Pterornalus, in the order 
Hymenoptera. Eighteen of these minute insects emerged from a single pupa of E. 
man/matus. The method by which the Pterornalus introduces its eggs into the dipterous 
larva, which is in its turn enclosed in a caterpillar, is not at present known to ento- 
mologists; but it seems probable that the eggs of the hyper-parasite are either deposited 
in the eggs of the dipterous insect, or else on the very young larva*, before they penetrate 
the skin of the caterpillar.' 5 

Genus 2.— OROPHORA, Fereday. 

"Ocelli present. Antennae f, in male moderately ln-pectinated throughout. Labial palpi rudi- 
mentary, hairy. Abdomen densely hairy. Fore-wings with veins 4 and 5 short-stalked, 7 and 8 
out of 9. Hind-wings with veins 4 and .'» stalked, parting-vein well defined, 8 connected by liar with 
cell beyond middle, and additional vein (9) rising out of 8 before bar." 

We ha vi' one species. 

OEOPHOKA UNICOLOE, Butl. 

{Psyche unicolor, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1877, 381. Orophora toumatou, Fereday, Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. x. 262, pi. ix. Orophora. unicolor, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 211) 

(Plate XIII., fig. 7 <?.) 

This odd-looking little insect has been found by Mr. Fereday, at Rakaia. 

The expansion of the wings is hardly 1 inch. All the wings are rather broad, rounded, and very 
sparsely covered with dusky brown hair-like scales; the body is very hairy, and the antenna? are 
slightly bi-pectinated. The female is apterous. 

The life-history is thus described by Mr. Fereday: "I have never seen the larva. 
Its case measures in length about Hi lines ( L| inches) ; the exterior is covered with pieces 
of stems of grass from a line to 5 lines in length, laid longitudinally and in the manner 
of thatch; the interior is thinly lined with tine silk. The cases are found fixed to the 
twigs of the Wild Irishman (Discaria toivmatoa), but it may be inferred from the 
covering of the case, that it probably does not feed on the shrub but upon the tussock 
grass, generally growing where the shrub is found. It is some years since I found the 
cases on Discaria toumatou, growing in the river-beds of the Rakaia and Wairnakariri, 
on the Canterbury Plains, and I did not find any case in its earlier stage before the larva 
had fed up and changed info the pupa state." \ 

All Mr. Fereday's specimens were bred from the eases, and to the best of my belief 
no one has ever observed the insect on the wing. It is evidently a very scarce species, 
and is probably restricted to a. few river-beds in the South Island. 

For further details on this subject iee 'The Entomologist,' mm. 245, and xviii. 159. 

I "Trans. N. Z. Inst.' x. (1877), 262. 



1 127 ) 



VII.— THE TORTRICINA 

Not dealt with in this volume. 



VIM. THE TINEINA. 

Not dealt with in this volume. 



IX. THE MICROPTERYGINA. 

The following are the principal characters of the Micropterijgina : — 

"Fore-wings with an oblique membranous dorsal process (jugum) near base, forming with 
the ilorsal margin a notch or sinus, which receives the costa of the hind-wings. Hind-wings without 
frenulum, ic present, with 11 or more veins, neuration essentially, almost or quite identical with 
that of fore-wings. Pore-wings and hind -wings more than usually remote at origin. 

"In the two families, which constitute this highly interesting group, is fortunately 
preserved a type of Lepidoptera whose existence could never have been inferred from a 
study of other forms. Without a knowledge of these two families the true origin of the 
order could never have been more than a matter of more or less probable conjecture. 
The Micropterygiclce are the primeval ancestors of all the Lepidoptera, indicating their 
origin from the Trichoptera so nearly that one or two more discoveries might make it 
hard to draw any line of demarcation. The Hejrialidce are an offshoot from the Micro- 
pterijgidce (with considerable extinction of intermediate forms), constituting ^a separate 
line of development quite unconnected with any other Lejridoptera ; if, as is possible, 
this separate stem may have ever given rise to other branches forming distinct families, 
all trace of their existence seems to have been lost. 

" Imago with fore-wings and hind-wings more or less semi-oval, termen and dorsum 
forming a nearly uniform curve. 

" Larva with few hairs, with 10 to 10 prolegs, or apodal, living concealed. 

"Pupa in Hepialidce with segments 7 to 11 and in male 12, in Micropterygidce with 
all segments free." — (Meyrick.) 

In this work the Hejnalidic alone are dealt with, the MicropterygidcB being reserved 



V2H NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

for a future work. It may, however, again be mentioned that the last-named family 
contains amongst its New Zealand representatives Palceomicra chalcoplumes, a species 
which more closely approximates in structure to a Neuropterous insect than does any 
other member of the Lepidoptera. This insect is consequently regarded by Mr. Meyrick 
as the most ancient species of the order yet known. The survival of Palceomicra in New 
Zealand is quite in accord with the existence of such forms as Apteryx and Dinornis 
amongst the birds, the tuatara lizard {Sphenodon) amongst reptiles, and Peripaius 
amongst Myriapoda, archaic forms which have been preserved in this country through 
its long isolation from continental areas, and the resulting absence of more recent 
competing forms. 

Family 1— HEPIALIDJE. 

"Head rough. Ocelli absent. Tongue obsolete. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Tibiae without 
spurs. Pore-wings with all main veins and costa connected by bars near base, lb furcate, forked 
parting vein strong." (Plate I., figs. 22, 23, 24, 28, 29.) 

" By no means an extensive family, yet of universal distribution. It stands more 
conspicuously isolated than any other group of Lepidoptera, for although it is without 
doubt a terminal development from the Micropterygidce (that is one from which no 
existing family has originated), the gap between them is considerable ; exotic genera, 
whilst differing in various details, are remarkably uniform in the more important 
peculiarities of structure, and do not at all tend to bridge the gap. The relatively 
large size of the Hepialidce (of which some species exceed six inches in expanse of 
wing) may be attributed to the larval habits, which render these insects independent 
of the seasons or fluctuations of food-supply, thus removing the check which ordinarily 
limits growth. The modified type of neuration may have resulted directly from the 
increase of size, involving a great strengthening of the main veins beneath the costa 
to support the weight. As a consequence of this strengthening, the flight of the 
larger species is very powerful, and to this, combined with a choice of larval food, 
which is often rather indiscriminate, may perhaps be ascribed the wide range of the 
group, rather than to its antiquity. It is probably of Indo-Malayan origin, and must 
have existed in that region long enough to acquire fixity of type before its dispersal, 
which, geologically speaking, may not have been exceedingly remote." — (Meyrick.) 

There are two genera represented in New Zealand — 

1. HePIALTS. 2. POEINA. 

Gemis 1.— HEPIALUS, F. 

" Antenna; 1 jj to |, in male lamellate or simple. Palpi short, drooping, hairy. Posterior 
tibiae usually densely rough-haired, in male sometimes with long projecting tuft above. Fore- 
wings with vein 7 from angle, 8 remote, 9 and 10 stalked. Hind-wings as fore-wings, 8 seldom 
connate or stalked with 7.'" (Plate I , figs. 22 and 23, neuration of Hepialus virescens, 24 head 
of ditto.) 

" A genus of universal distribution, but not very numerous in species. Ovum 
spheroidal, smooth. Larva elongate, active. Pupa with segmental whorls of spines, 
enabling it to move actively before emergence." — (Meyrick.) 

Represented by one species onh — the largest moth we have in New Zealand. 



IX.- THE MICBOPTERYGINA. 129 

HEPTALIS VIEESCENS, Dbld. 

(Hepialus virescens, Dbld., Dieff. New Zeal., ii. 284 : White. Taylor New Zeal., pi. i. 6. Hepialm rubra- 
viridans, White. I.e., pi. i. 1. Charagia virescens, Walk.. Bomb., 1569; Scott, Trans. Ent. Soc. X. S. Wales, 
ii. -28. C.fischeri, Feld., pi. Ixxx. 1. C. hectori, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 380. Hepiulm virescens, 
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. [nst., xxii., 211.) 

(Plate XIII., fig. 16 3. 1" 2 ; Plate III., fig. 2:1 larva, 30 pupa.) 

This lax'ge and conspicuous insect appears to be generally distributed throughout 
the North Island. 

The expansion (if the wings of the male is 4 inches, of the female sometimes fully 5J inches. 
The fore-wings of the male are bright green, with a series of paler ring-shaped markings between 
t/h veins ; mi irregular r<>ic of white spots crosses tin wing near the middle, ami a small white spot 
is situated on tin' costa at the base. The hind-wings are very pale yellowish-brown near the body, 
becoming pure white in the middle, ami pale green on the termen. The head ami thorax arc green, 
the abdomen is white, tinged with green at the apex. The female has all the wings of a relatively 
more attenuated shape; the fore-wings are green, mottled with black; the hind-wings are pale 
reddish-brown, shaded with green near the termen; the abdomen is also reddish-brown, becoming 
green at the extremity. 

The species is rather variable in both sexes. In the male the white spots on 
the fore-win.os vary considerably in size, and there are occasionally several additional 
spots near the body. In the female the black markings id' the fore-wings are sometimes 
much more extensive than the green ground colour. This dark form of the female 
was described by Butler as a distinct species, under the name of Chararjia hectori. In 
both sexes the green colouring is occasionally entirely absent, a dull orange-brown 
taking its place. [ formerly attributed this peculiarity to the effects of fading, but 
Mr. Norris has shown me a very perfect specimen of this variety, which he bred from 
the pupa, he having noticed the orange-brown colouring immediately after the insect 
emerged. 

The transformations of this insect are very interesting. The female lays an 
enormous number of very small, round, yellowish eggs, which she seems to deposit 
quite indiscriminately. The young larvse consequently have to find their way along 
the ground to the stems of their food-plant, a large percentage no doubt perishing 
before they succeed in doing so. and this circumstance probably accounts for the great 
number of coos produced. 

The food-plants of this species are numerous ; the following are a few of them : 
"wineberry" or "currant" [Aristnteliu raceinosa), apparently the favourite ; "manuka" 
{Leptospermum ericoides) ; " ki-ki " (Astelia solandri); "black maire " (Olea apetela) ; 
titoki (Alectryon excelsum); and Melicope. The larva tunnels the stems of these 
trees, feeding entirely on the wood, which it bites off with its strong mandibles. 

For the most part it inhabits the main stem of the tree, its gallery always having 
an outlet, which is covered with a curtain of silk and refuse, and is spun exactly level 
with the surrounding hark, and very inconspicuous. These burrows usually run 
towards the ground, and are mostly two or three inches from the surface of the trunk. 
In some instances the larva? inhabit branches, in which case, if they are small, the 
tunnels are made near the centre. Later on in its life, but probably some time before its 
transformation into the pupa, the caterpillar of this insect constructs a far more com- 
plicated burrow than the above. It consists of a spacious, irregular, but shallow cavity, 
just under the bark, having a very large opening to the air, which is entirely covered 

17 



130 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA . 

with a thin silken curtain, almost exactly the same shape and size as the numerous 
marks occurring at intervals on the trunks of many of the trees. Three large tunnels 
open into this shallow cavity : one in the centre, which runs into the middle of the 
stem, and one on each side, which run right and left just under the bark. These lateral 
tunnels are usually very short, but sometimes they extend half-way round the tree, 
and occasionally even join one another on the opposite side. The central tunnel has 
a slightly upward direction for a short distance inwards, which effectually prevents 
it from becoming flooded in wet weather; afterwards it pursues an almost horizontal 
course until it reaches the centre of the tree, when it appears to suddenly terminate. 
This, however, is not the case, for, if the gallery floor be carefully examined a short 
distance before its apparent termination, a round trap-door will lie found, compactly 
constructed of very hard, smooth silk, and corresponding with the surrounding portion 
of the tunnel so exactly that it almost escapes detection. When this lid is lifted a 
Ion-, perpendicular shaft is disclosed, which runs down the middle of the tree to a depth 
of 14 or 1(> inches, and is about \ inch in diameter. The upper end of this shaft is 
lined with silk, which forms a framework on which the trap-door rests when closed. 
The lid itself is of a larger size than the orifice which it covers, and this makes it 
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to force it open from the exterior, especially as 
it always fits down very closely as long as the insect remains in its burrow. The 
object of this contrivance is, no doubt, to prevent the ingress of enemies, large numbers 
of spiders, slugs, wood-lice, and various orthoptera being frequently found in both 
central and lateral tunnels, but they are quite unable to pass the trap-door. The 
galleries of individual larvae are all wonderfully alike, the only differences observable 
being in the length of the perpendicular shaft, and in the direction of the horizontal 
burrow, which is sometimes curved. These variations are usually caused by the 
presence of other tunnels in the tree, which the larva appears to carefully avoid ; at 
least I have never known an instance where a larva has allowed its tunnel to 
communicate with another one, whether inhabited or otherwise. 

The caterpillar, when full grown, measures from -11 to 3 inches in length. It is tolerably 
uniform in thickness, and of a dull yellow colour. The head is large, dark brown, very irregularly 
striated, and covered with a few short bristles. The first segment is hard and shining with the back 
and sides ruddy-brown. Its spiracle, which is very large, is situated near the posterior margin, and a 
little above it there is a dull black spot, tilling a slight concavity about the same size as the spiracle 
itself. Each remaining segment has on its dorsal surface two horny plates, and two similar plates are 
situated on inch side immediately below the spiracle. The body of the larva is thinly covered with 
yellow and black bristles. In many specimens the ventral surface and connecting membrane 
between the horny plates is pale purple. Younger specimens differ in being of an olive-green 
colour, which is much more pronounced, when they are small. 

The last act performed by the caterpillar, prior to undergoing its transformation, 
is the construction of the above-described trap-door at the top of its burrow. This 
done the insect retreats to the bottom, its posterior segment resting on the termination 
of the vertical gallery. In^the course of a few days the skin is cast off and worked 
downwards to the bottom of the burrow, underneath the last segment of the 
pupa. 

This pupa varies from 2 to 2 J inches in length. It is attenuated in form and pale reddish- 
yellow in colour. The head and dorsal portion of the thorax are dark brown and hai'der than the 
rest of the body. The edges of the abdominal segments are furnished dorsally with a row of small 



IX.— THE MICBOPTERYGINA. I'll 

hooklets above and below all the divisions; on the ventral surface there is only a single row, which 
is situated in front of each articulation. 

As development progresses in the pupa it becomes darker in colour, especially on 
the wing-eases, where, in aoine female specimens, the future black markings of 
the moth are quite discernible as long as two months before emergence. Other 
specimens remain pale in colour until within a fortnight or three weeks of the appearance 
of the imago, when the green colouring of the wings suddenly becomes visible through 
their semi-transparent envelopes. 

When about to emerge the pupa works its way up the vertical tunnel by means 
of the above-mentioned booklets, forces open the trap-door, and wriggles along the 
horizontal burrow until it reaches the air, only the last three or lour segments remaining 
in the tree. Its anterior portions then break open and the moth crawls out and expands 
its wings in the ordinary way, resting on the trunk of the tree, until they are of sufficient 
strength and hardness for flight. 

The perfect insect appears in October and November. Although it must lie common, 
it is rarely seen ; specimens are consequently host obtained in the pupa state and reared 
in captivity. The easiest way to find the pupa is to pass a straw into the horizontal 
burrow, and move it about until it touches the trap-door. The collector is at once 
apprised of this circumstance by a distinct hollow sound, produced by the straw when it 
comes in contact with the lid, which acts like a miniature drum. If no such sound is 
heard after moving the straw into every possible position, it may he assumed either that 
the insect has left the burrow, or that it is inhabited by a larva only. When, however, a 
pupa is actually discovered, a section of the tree-trunk should lie cut out, extending from 
about two inches above the horizontal burrow to about one foot below it, and the log, thus 
obtained, taken home. Should a number of pupae be found in one tree the whole trunk 
may then he taken, if practicable, and kept in a well-lighted room or a conservatory, until 
the enclosed insects emerge. The specimens usually come out of the pupa at about live or 
six o'clock in the evening, and if intended for the cabinet should he killed before dark, as 
they very soon injure themselves when flying. 

The best time of year to obtain the pupa of this insect is during August and 
September, as most of the specimens are then in that condition. Apart from the 
indications above described, burrows containing larva' may often be known by the fresh 
pellets of excrement which are present near the opening. The vacated burrows frequently 
have the remains of the old pupa shell at the entrance, and generally look gnarled and 
weather-worn. These indications are useful as guides to the collector before exploring 
the burrow with a straw in the manner above described. 

This insect is much attracted by light, and in consequence sometimes enters shop- 
windows and houses. In tact nearly all the captured specimens are so taken, the moth 
being very rarely found in its native forests. This circumstance is no doubt due to its 
very perfect protective colouring which, notwithstanding its large size, causes it to he 
almost invisible, when resting on the branch of a tree. On one occasion I discovered a 
specimen in this situation ; being obliged to leave it for a short time, I experienced the 
utmost difficulty in finding' it again, although I had taken a special note of its position. 
This species appears to he much persecuted by insectivorous birds, as we may frequently 
see its large green wings lying on the ground, where they are wry conspicuous. 



132 NEW ZEALAND MACBO-LEPIDOPTEBA. 

Genus 2.— POEINA. 

"Antennas J-f, in male bi-pectinated, or more or less shortly bi-dentate. Palpi moderate, 
porrected, basal joint rough-haired, second joint rough-haired or almost smooth, terminal joint smooth, 
sometimes subclavate. Posterior tibiae densely rough-haired. Pore-wings with vein 7 from angle of 
cell, 8 and 9jout of 10, rising from upper margin much before angle. Hind-wings as in fore-wings." 
— (Meyrick.) (Plate I., figs. 28 and '2'.) neuration of Porina signata.) 

Of this genus we have eight species in New Zealand. 

POEINA DINODES, Meyr. 

[Porina dinodes, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 206.) 
Plate XIII., fig. 8.) 
This handsome species was discovered at Inveroargill by Professor Hutton. 
The expansion of the wings is 2| inches. The fore-wings arc dark brown. There is an irregular 
white mark with a brown centre at the base, several white dots and crescentic marks near the middle, 
an oblique scries of double crescentic marks followed bj a considerably fainter series near the termen. 
'The hind-wings arc yellowish-brown ; the cilia, of all the wings are white, barred with dark brown. The 
antennce of the male are strongly bi-pectinated. 

Described and figured from a- specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection. 

POEINA MAIEI, Puller. 

{Porina main, Puller, Trans. N. Z. Inst. v. 279, pi. xvii., Meyr.. Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 207.) 

A single, specimen of this line species was discovered by Sir Walter Buller on the 
Ruahine Ranges, in the Wellington district, during the summer id' 1867. 

The expansion of the wings is about 5 inches. "Wings large, broad, front-wings pro- 
duced, ovate-triangular, pale dirty testaceous; six black spots terminating veins on outer margin, 
and bounded by a lunated marginal white band ; a submarginal series of arrow-headed black 
spots, and beyond these ;i series of rounded spots, the first four encircled with white, the 
rest wnli pale brown; two broken, black discal lines tilled in with brown; a broad irregular 
band to below centre of wing, beyond cell, and formed of three black lines with brown inter- 
spaces ; a triangular white spot below cell and a white patch terminating it and traversed by 
two black crosses; two diverging black bars surrounded with white in centre of cell and a third 
surrounded with dirty testaceous near base; a, large irregular patch of whitish-brown below end of 
cell, bounded on internal area by three unequally formed patches which together almost form the 
sides of a large triangle ; two small spots near base; hind-wings greyish, becoming browner towards 
outer margin and crossed by eight interrupted black bars." — (Puller). 

The type specimen of this species was unfortunately lost in the wreck of the 
barque 'Assaye' in 1890. I have copied the above from Sir Walter Buller's 
original paper, and it may la' well to point out that his description proceeds 
from the termen to the base, being the reverse order to that followed by me in all 
the other descriptions in this work. 

The so-called "vegetable caterpillar" (infested with the Sphceria fungus 
Cordiceps robertsii ) is, I think, very probably the larva, of this insect. It was 
formerly supposed to bo the larva of Hepialus virescens ; but I have pointed out 
elsewhere that this is certainly erroneous, the larva of H. virescens living in the stems 
of trees, and never going beneath the ground, even to pupate, whilst the "vegetable" 
larva is subterranean. The real point to he discovered is the precise species of 
Lepidoptera this caterpillar would develop into, if not attacked by the fungus; but 
at present no definite information has been obtained on the subject. 

• Entomologist,' xviii, 36. 



This species 


appear; 


The expansion 


i of the 


wings are dark ora 


age-brow 


variable number of 


small d 



IX. -THE MICBOPTEBYGINA. 133 

POEINA ENYSII, Butl. 

(Porina enysii, Butl., Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1877, 381, pi. xlii. 7. Porina enysii, Meyr., Trans. 
X. Z. Inst. xxii. 207.) 
Plate XI II., fig. i) 3 , lis- 10 ? .) 
to be confined to the North Island, where it is rather rare. 
vings of the male is 2i inches, of the female 3J inches. The fore- 
[. more or less marbled with yellow and dark brown; there is a very 
II white spots margined with black ami arranged irregularly on the 
wing. The hind-wings are pinkish-brown, tinged with ochreous on flu 1 termen. 

This species varies a good deal in the extent of the darker markings, and number 
and position of the dtdl white spots. When alive it is usually very strongly tinged 
with pink. 

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents forests. It 
is especially fond of resting on the stems of tree-ferns in the daytime, where, 
however, it is extremely inconspicuous, and can only lie discovered by very careful 
searching. It is also very partial to light, and specimens might perhaps be secured 
more plentifully, if a good attracting lamp were exhibited in a suitable locality. 

PORINA CHARACTERIFERA, Walk. 

(Hepialus character ifer. Walk., Suppl. 594. Oxycanus impletus, ib. 598. Porina characterifera, Meyr., 

Trans. X. Z. Inst. xxii. 208.) 

Plate XIII.. fig. 11 J.) 

This hue species has been taken in the North Island at Auckland, Kaitoke, and 
Wellington. 

The expansion of the wmg- is about ■'< inches. The fore-wings are rather dull yellow, 
finely marbled with black ; there are tiro conspicuous irregular black mark* <i little above the 
middle of tin- dorsum. The hind-wings are very dark purplish-brown with the cilia yellow, barred 
with broion. The bead and thorax are dull yellow, speckled with black, and the abdomen is dark 
purplish-brown, barred with dtdl white, with a yellow tuft at the apex. 

The perfect insect appears in October, November, and December. At present 1 
am only aware id' four specimens in collections, viz., two in the British Museum, 
taken at Auckland; one in Mr. Meyrick's collection, taken by Mr. H. B. Kirk 
on the Rimutaka Ranges, at an elevation of about 1,500 feet; and one kindly given 
to me by -Mr. W. R. Morris, who took it at Wadestown, near Wellington.* It is 
evidently a scarce species, but may be looked for in the forest districts of the 
North Island. 

PORINA CERVINATA, Walk. 

(EUuimma cervinata, Walk., Suppl. 595. Porina vexata, ib. 597. Pielus variolaris, Gn., Km. Mo. .Mag. v. 1. 

Porina fuliginea, Butl, Cist. Ent. ii. 488. Porina cervinata, Meyr., Trans. X. Z. Inst. xxii. 208.) 

(Plate XIII., tig. 1-2 J, fig. 18 variety of ? .) 

This insect is fairly common, and generally distributed throughout the country. 
It is very abundant m the Manawatu district. 

The expansion of the wings is about 1A inches. The fore-wings vary fnun brownish-black 
to dull yellow, there are several small white spots near the base margined with black, and an 
obscure cloudy central streak, sometimes containing one or two minute irregular white marks ; 
near the termen a broad, pale, wavy line runs from the costa to the dorsum, and contains 
several elongate dull white spots, margined with black; another series of smaller spots is often 
situated between this line and the termen ; there is a terminal row of small black spots. The 

Since writing the above I understand from Mr. Baunehr that he has met with several specimens of this species 
in forest on the Dun Mountain, Nelson, at an elevation of about '2.UUU feet. 



134 NEW ZEALAND M ACBO-LEPTDOPTEBA. 

hind-wings vary from pale greyish-brown to dull yellow. The cilia of all the wings are barred 
with dark brown. 

This species is extremely variable. In many cases a large number of the spots 
is wanting. Mr. Meyrick states that the northern specimens are more yellow-ochreous, 
and more distinctly spotted than the southern ones. He adds that " the ochreous forms 
are easily distinguished from other species by the numerous spots and the absence of 
a continuous pale discal streak ; the fuscous forms are sometimes very similar in 
colouring to P. despecta, but they are distinctly shorter-winged, and the compound 
discal spots appear to be a good character." 

I have taken several specimens of what appears to be a variety of this species 
on the Tableland of Mount Arthur. It is much paler than the typical form, the 
markings much less distinct, and the central portions of the fore-wings very pale 
yellow (see fig. 18). 

The moth appears in October. It is very much attracted by light. 

POEINA DESPECTA, Walk. 

(Hepialus despcctiis, Walk., Suppl. 594. Porina despecta, Meyr., Trans. N. X. Inst. xxii. 209.) 
(Plate XIII., tig. 13 ?.) 

This species has occurred in the South Island, at Christchurch, the Otira River 
and Lake Wakatipu. 

The expansion of the wings is from lh to If inches. The fore-wings are dull brown with 
several irregular dull white markings near the centre of the wing. The hind-wings are also dull 
brown. In general appearance it closely resembles the last-mentioned species /'. cervinata), but 
may always he recognised by its longer and narrower wings, smaller body and antenna, and absence 
of distinct markings near the terrnen. 

The perfect insect appears in January, and is usually taken at light. 

POEINA UMBKACULATA, Gn. 

(Pieltts umbraadatus, Gn., Ent. Mo. Mag. v. 1. Porina umbracidata, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xxii. 20'.).) 
(Plate XIII., fig. 14 S .) 
This species is probably common, and generally distributed throughout the 
country. It has been taken at Palmerston, North Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, 
Invercargill and Stewart Island. 

The expansion of the wings of the male is If inches, of the female '24 inches. The fore- 
wings are dull yellowish-brown; in the centre there is a broad longitudinal blackish streak, 
containing a conspicuous straight white stripe, occasionally broken into tiro or three very elongate 
spots: there are often several black dots along the terrnen. The hind-wings are dull ochreous, 
strongly tinged with pink towards the base. 

This species varies considerably in the depth of the ground colour, and in the 
number of the black dots. A blackish shaded line, parallel to the terrnen, is also 
frequently present. The species may, however, be at once recognised by the straight, 
white, central stripe of the fore-wings. 

The perfect insect appears from October till January, and is generally captured 
at light. 

POEINA SIGN AT A. Walk. 
(Elhamma signata, Walk., Bomb. 1563. Porina mvcB-zealandia, Lb. 1573. Porina signata, Meyr., Trans. 

N. Z. Inst. xxii. 210.) 
(Plate XIII. , fig. 15 3 ; Plate III., fig. 6 larva.) 
Apparently an abundant species in the North Island, having been taken com- 



IX, -THE MTCROPTEEYGINA. 135 

monly at Napier, Palmerston and Wellington. I suspect it occurs in the South 
Island also, but I have no records of its capture there. 

Tlie expansion of the wings is from - 2 to 2\ inches. The fore-wings are dark brownish- 
ochreous, becoming ilull white near the middle and on the termen; there is a shaded central, 
longitudinal, blackish hand containing several white spots, forming an irregular stripe in the 
middle of the wing ; there arc also many irregular markings with dull white centres, chiefly 
situated near the veins, and often arranged in two or three rows parallel to the termen. All 
the markings are very variable, but the insect may be at once known by the irregular central 
white stripe. When alive the entire colouring is always strongly tinged with pink. 

1 have often found a large subterranean caterpillar, that I believe to he the 
larva of this insect; but as 1 have never succeeded in rearing a specimen, I cannot 
assign it to this species with absolute certainty. 

The length of this larva when full grown is nearly '■> inches. Tts colour is dirty white, 
becoming darker on the hack, 'the head is dark brown, very rough and horny; the three first 
segments are also horny on the dorsal surface. The rest of the body is very much softer, ami 
is furnished with several horny tubercles, each of which emits a lone bristle. 

This larva is very lively when disturbed. It usually disgorges a large quantity 
of black juice from the mouth, biting- meantime, in order no doubt to frighten its 
enemies. It feeds on the roots of various grasses. 

The perfect insect appears in January, February and March, and is often 
extremely abundant at light. 



iii the 


foregoing pi 




In < 


terms ] 


lave been oi 


nitted 


. Tl 


will of 


course cons 


ult w 


n-ks 


A.ci 


PHYLLA SQUA1 


tROSA 


Spei 


country 


. with long, \ 


en si 


iarp 


placed i 


■ound a tall c. 


mtral 


shoot 



APPENDIX. 

By FLOBENCE W. HUDSON. 

A BRIEF DESCEIPTIVE LIST OF THE PLANTS MENTIONED IN THIS WORK. 

The following list of trees, shrubs, <&c., has been prepared to assist entomologists in 
recognising the various food-plants mentioned in connection with the insects described 
der to meet the requirements of beginners, all botanical 
ise desiring precise scientific information on these plants, 
>eoially dealing with botany. 

-grass). A plant often found on the sea-coast, or open hilly 
•ines instead of leaves. The Bowers arc very small, and are 
which is also covered with spines. 

\s< UTI i.S Milkweed). 

Asjt.i.ia rolandri. A plant found growing on the stems of large forest trees. It lias very 
Long, narrow, dark green leaves springing from the base of the plant, and lemon-coloured flowers 
arranged on a long stem. The berries are bright crimson. 

Alectryox bxcelsum (Titoki). A moderate-sized tree with leaves rather long, toothed, 
and light green. The fruit has a very remarkable appearance ; it consists of a. shining black 
seed, partially surrounded by a bright red fleshy covering. 

Apocynum (the common Periwinkle). 

Aristotelia racemosa (Wine-berry, New Zealand Currant, Makomako). A well-known tree, 
often found in clearings in the forest, where it usually takes the place el' the original trees ; m 
fact this plant seems to seize en every vacant space. It. leaves arc pale green, the flowers are 
much like those of the garden "flowering currant," and the berries are small and dark red. 

Beilschmiedia TAWA (Tawa tree). A handsome tree, with very long, narrow, light green 
leaves, and smooth bark. 

Brachyglottis repanda (Wharangi). One of the early flowering shrubs, with large bunches 
of small, strong-scented, white flowers. The leaves arc large and pale green, the under side 
being white. 

Carmkh.i.i.i \. or New Zealand Broom. A genus of shrubs closely resembling the common 
broom, hut with very small flowers, more or less streaked with blue or lilac. 

18 137 



13& A PPENDIX. 

Carpodetus serrattjs. A pretty shrub or small tree with rather small, serrated, bright green 
leaves and numerous clusters of small whitish fragrant flowers, followed by nearly globular hard 
green fruits. 

Carex subdola (Sedge). 

Coprosma. A genus of shrubs with small, generally rather dull green leaves, insignificant 
flowers, and bright, variously coloured berries. One common species, Coprosma fcetidissima, has 
a most objectionable odour when cut or bruised. 

CORDYLINE AUSTRALIS (Ti-tri, or Cabbage tree, as it is usually called). This is one of the most 
remarkable-looking trees in New Zealand. Tt much resembles a palm in general appearance. 
The leaves are long and narrow, with parallel veins ; the flowers are whitish, very numerous, 
growing in drooping clusters at the top of the tree. 

Cyathea dealbata (Silver tree fern). A large tree fern, growing from ten to forty feet high, 
with a slender black stem, ami dark green fronds silvery underneath. 

Discaria toumatod (Wild Irishman, Tumatakuru). A straggling shrub, or small tree, often 
common in dry, open places. It is furnished with numerous long sharp spines, with several very 
insignificant flowers and leaves at the base of each spine. 

Donatia nov.exealvxdia. A small Alpine plant, with very short stems, around each of 
which are placed numerous leaves. It has a superficial resemblance to a moss. 

Pagus cliffortioides (Mountain Beech, but more often known as Birch or Black Birch). 
A very handsome forest tree, usually growing in somewhat elevated localities. It has small light 
green leaves, and black stems with very rough bark. 

Fuchsia excorticata four native Fuchsia). A very common tree or shrub growing in the 
forest. The bark is pale reddish-brown; the leaves rather elongate, dark green, with pale 
under-side. The flowers closely resemble those of the cultivated fuchsia, but are less brightly 
coloured. This plant partially sheds its leaves in winter. 

Galixia setifolia. A large, grass-like plant growing in clumps, with very long, dark 
green leaves, which cut the fingers unless the plant is carefully handled. A number of small, brown 
flowers is situated near the top of a tall stem, in the centre of each clump. 

Haloragis alata. A herbaceous plant abundant on dry hills : the leaves are deeply 
indented, slightly rough, and arranged on opposite sides of the stem. The flowers are small 
and green : the fruit is a nut with small wings attached. 

Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka, Tea tree). A small tree, growing' usually in poor soil. 
The leaves are very small and dull green, and the numerous star-like flowers are white, tinged 
with pink. 

Melicope simplex. A somewhat straggling shrub with very small, roundish, light green leaves. 

Melicytus ramiflorus (Mahoe or Hinahinaj. A shrub or tree. The leaves are moderately 
toothed, bright green, and very pretty. The flowers are in clusters, hanging from the bases of 
the leaves; the fruit is violet-coloured with black seeds. 

Metrosideros scandens (White Rata). A common climbing shrub with small, roundish, 
gloss)-, dark green leaves and very numerous feathery white flowers. The seed has a powdery 
appearance, and is enclosed in a, large capsule. 



IPPENDIX. 139 

Muhlenbeckia adpressa. A common climbing plant, generally found near the edge of 
the forest. It lias a very tangled growth. Leaves heart-shaped or broadl} oblong; in young 
plants, three-lobed : spike, many-flowered. 

Myosotis arvensis (Forget-me-not 

Myhtus i;ii,i.\i\ Ramarama). A remarkably pretty shrub with reddish-brown or green 
leaves, much crinkled. The flowers are white, tinged with pink, and very much resemble those 
of the English myrtle. I '.onus aboul the size of currants, rod or purple. 

CEnothera biennis (the Evening Primrose). This herb grows to the height of two or three 
feet. It has huge, bright yellow flowers, opening towards evening. Found in sandy soil on the 
sea-coast. 

Olea apetala Manv, Now /.aland olive. A shrub or small tree with broad leaves, and 
insignificant flowers growing on opposite sides of the flower-stalk. 

Oleaeia traversii Ake-ake . A small tree or shrub with oval, very wavy, thick, pale green 
leaves, white underneath. The flowers are very small, yellowish-white and strongly scented. 
They do noi appeal' till late in autumn. 

Panax arborea. A small tree with bright, glossy green, compound leaves. Each leaf consists 
of five separate leaflets on distinct footstalks, connected with branch by a long, stout stem. The 
large bunches of black berries are very conspicuous in the autumn. 

PENNANTIA CORYMBOSA. A small tree with oval, serrated, bright green leaves, and handsome 
(dusters of sweet-scented white flowers. 

l'irr.i; excelsum (Kawa-kawa . A small tree gen, ■rally growing in damp places. The leaves 
are broad, heart-shaped, bright green, and nearly always riddled with holes. 

Pittospohum eugenic-ides Taratn . A shruli or small tree, with rather elongate, pale green 
wavy leaves, and bunches of fragrant, small, yellow flowers. 

Pittospori'M L'EXUIFOLIUM, var. XioKKsoKNs (Matipo. A very ornamental shrub with 
small, shining, bright green leaves, and black stems. The Mowers are dark purple, and rather 
buried among the foliage. 

PLAGIANTHUS BETULINUS South Island Kibholl Wood). A tl'i f moderate size. The loaves 

are rather light green, and doubly serrated. The flowers are small, white, with red anthers, and 
very numerous. 

l'o\ australis (Tussock). One of the common native grasses of New Zealand. It grows in 
large (dumps, often about two feet in height, li is especially common in open situations in the 
South Island. 

POMADERRIS ERICIFOLIA (Tauhinu, or Cotton Wood . A shruh usually growing in rather 
exposed places. The leaves are very small, pointed, dull given above and white underneath. 
They are placed very closely on the stems, which are also white. The flowers are dull yellowish- 
white, and grow in clusters. 

Pteris encisa. A soft, light green, straggling fern, growing in open places in the forest, and 
round decayed logs. 

Scabious ("Pincushion"). An introduced garden plant. The flowers are of many different 

colours — the name "pincushion," gives the best description of appearance. It is very attractive 
to insects. 



140 APPENDIX. 

SENECIO BELLIBIOIBES. A common mountain herb, with rather dark green leaves, and a small 
tuft of bright yellow daisy-like flowers. 

Senecio scanbens (called by settlers French Ivy). A common climbing plant having a 
superficial resemblance to ivy, but with much brighter green leaves, and yellow flowers. 

Senecio vulgaris (Groundsel). A common garden weed. 

Solanum aviculabe (Poro-poro, or Potato Plant). A shrub, with very dark green, pointed 
leaves, purple underneath, and bright purple flowers resembling those of the potato. 

Tobea hymenophylloibes. One of the "crape" ferns, growing in very shady places in the 
forest. It has soft, graceful, light -itch [ronds. 

(JRTICA FEROX ("Nettle Tree"). It lias prickly, light green leaves, with very Ion- thick 
spines ; a row of these spines is situated along the midrib of each leaf. It grows in open 
situations. 

Urtica incisa (Ground Nettle). A herbaceous plant found m shady places amongst ferns 
The leaves arc covered with spines, winch give a very sharp sting when touched. 

Veronica (Koromiko). A genus of shrubs, found commonly mi the margins of forests, and mi 
lull-tops. The leaves are rather Ion-, smooth, and dark green, and the flowers are mostly purplish- 



IXDKX TO GENERAL SUBJECTS. 



Abdomen xiii 

Adaptive characters .... xvi 

Air-tubes ix 

AlpineLepidoptera.colours of xv 

Anastomosis xii 

Antennae of imago x 

of larva ix 

Apes i if wing xii 

Arctic] jepidoptera, colours of xv 

Base of wing si 

Biliary vessels of imago xiii 

of larva ... x 

Bi-pectinated x 

Butterflies 101 

Caecum xiii 

Caterpillars ix 

Classification xvi 

Clavate intestine x 

Coincidence of veins xii 

Colon of imago xiii 

„ of larva x 

Concurrence of veins xii 

Connection of veins xii 

Contrast colours xv 

Costa xi 

Coxa of imago xiii 

,, of larva ix 

Crown x 

Digestive system of imago xiii 

,, ,, of larva x 

Divergence of character ... xiv 

Dorsum xi 

Ecdvsis x 

Egg ix 

Byes, compound x 

,, simple x 

Face x 

Fasciculate-ciliated xi 



PAGE 

Femur of imago xiii 

., of larva ix 

Filiform xi 

Frenulum xii 

Geographical distribution... xix 

Haustellum xi 

Head x 

Ilium of imago xiii 

,. of larva x 

[rnago x 

Inheritance xiv 

Jugum mi 

Labium of imago xi 

of larva ix 

Labrum of imago xi 

of larva ix 

Larva ix 

Legs of imago xiii 

,, of larva ix 

I iepidoptera . descent of . . . xvii 

arrangement i if xviii 

Mandibles of imago xi 

of larva ix 

Maxilla? of imago xi 

of larva ix 

Mimicry xv 

Natural selection xiv 

Neuration xii 

Obsolescence of veins xii 

Ocelli 

CEsophagus of image ... xiii 

„ of larva x 

Ornamental colouring XV 

Palpi, labial, of imago xi 



Palpi, labial, of larva ix 

maxillary, of imago xi 

of larva ... ix 

Pectinated x 

Praeci istal spur xii 

I 'roboscis xi 

Prolegs ix 

Protective resemblance xiv 

I 'seudi meuria xii 

Pubescenl xi 

Pupa x 

Retinaculum xii 

Salivary vessels xiii 

Serrate xi 

Sexual selection xvi 

Species, origin of xiii 

Spinneret x 

Spinning vessels x 

Spiracles ... ix 

Stalking of veins xii 

Struggle for existence xiv 

Sucking stomach xiii 

"Survival of the Fittest" xiv 

Termen xi 

Tibia of imago xiii 

,, of larva ix 

Tongue xi 

Tin nus xii 

Unipectinated x 

Variation xiii 

" Vegetable caterpillar " ... 132 

Veins of wings xii 

Ventriculus of imago ... xiii 

,, of larva x 

Warning colours xv 

Wings.; xi 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



Names of Groups are printed in capitals (CARADRININA, &c). 
,, Families, in small capitals (Aectiad;e, &e.). 

„ Sub-families, in sanserif italic (Poliades, &c). 

,, Genera, in ronian beginning with a capital (Agrotis, &c). 

Species, in roman (ammlata, &c). 
,, Synonyms, in ordinary italic (dmiblviloiji, etc.). 



abrogata 55 

absconditaria 60 

acceptrix 18 

acetina 7 

acidalmria 77 

acontistis 11 

acroiaria SO 

acutata 76 

admirationis 31 

adonis 63 

tegfota 64 

Agrotis 30 

agrionata 10 

agorastis IS 

alcyone 24 

alectoraria SO 

alopa 12 

anceps 69 

auguligera 47 

angusta IS 

annulata 2 

Anosia 102 

antarctica 42 

anthracias 67 

antipoda L0 

antipodaria 87 

antipodum 110 

aquosata 41 

arachnia.4 23 

archippus 102 

Arctiad^; 1 

ardularia 57 

arenacea 87 

argentifera 35 

Argyrophenga 110 

arida 50 

aristai'cha 85 

aristias 42 

armigera 32 

avotis 12 

Asaphodes 54 

asterope 24 

Asthena 52 

82 

assata 55 

atalanta 120 



atnstnga 10 

atronivea 95 

attracta 86 

aiige 104 

aulacias 12 

Azelina 92 

beata 63 

liirinninii 7 

bilineolata 41 

bisigiiata 47 

Bityla 29 

blenheimensis 13 

boldenarum IIS 

bolina 104 

boreophilaria 88 

brephos 75 

brephosata 7") 

bryopis 62 

bulbulata (is 

butleri 115 

caerulea 8 

ccdida 41 

callicrena 73 

callichlora 5( I 

camelias 65 

Caradrinid 3u 5 

Carad rin ides 29 

CAEADEININA ... 1 

caprimiilgakt 86 

cardui L08 

cataphracta 61 

catapyrrha (is 

catilla l-'l 

catocalaria 75 

Catopsilia 121 

ceramodei 8 

oerapaohoides 32 

ceraunias II 

cervinata 1 33 

Chalastra 88 

chalcites 35 

chalcophanes L28 

i haotica 50 

chai acterifera 133 



PAGE 

charybdis 41 

chionogramma 65 

chorica 66 

chlamydota 59 

chlorias 63 

Chloroclystis 41 

chrysopeda 68 

Chrysophanus 116 

iiiliirmiiii 41 

cinerascem 88 

cinerearia 67 

clarata (il 

coeleno 26 

comma 7 

composita 22 

conferta 32 

congregata 47 

congressata 47 

conversata 17 

convolvuli 99 

cooharia 91 

corcularia 67 

Cosmodes 33 

cosmodora 62 

cucullina 27 

cymosema 56 

Dasypodia 35 

Dasyuris 69 

debilis is 

deceptura 9 

Declana 94 

defigurata 29 

dejectaria 86 

dclicatulata 59 

deltoidata 17 

denotatus 45 

dentigera 22 

descriptata 17 

despecta 131 

desiecata S7 

Diadema, sec Anosia L02 

dial meta -il 

Dichromodes 78 

tlill'ii.siirin 67 

(liiioilcs 132 



dione 14 

disjungens 15 

clissociata 67 

distans 99 

Dodonidia 112 

iloiioraui 46 

dotata 24 

doubledayi 2 

Drepanodes 91 

dryas 43 

egregia 96 

elegans 33 

Elvia 46 

encausta 89 

enysii (Chryso- 
phanus) 117 

enysii (Dasyuris) ... 69 

,, (Porina) 133 

ephyraria 91 

Epirranthis 79 

Erana 28 

Erebia 113 

erebinata si; 

erichrysa 4 

eriosoma 35 

erippus 102 

Euchceca 51 

euclidiata 68 

eupitheciaria 67 

Euplose 120 

exprompta 86 

exsularis 34 

cxtmnea 13 

falcata 66 

falcatella 7(i 

felix 90 

fenerata 82 

feredayi (Declana) ... '.til 
feredayi (Chryso- 
phanus) 116 

ferox 74 

fiqlinaria 77 

fischeri 129 

flexata 90 



\M 



SPECIAL TNDEX. 



PAGl 

floci osn 96 

fortinata 93 

fragosattt 84 

fuligiiieu 133 

i 48 

fusiplagiata 89 

gallaria 92 

GEOMETRIN \, see 

NOTODONTINA 38 

glaucata Hi 

qlyphivaht G8 

gobiala 47 

gonerilln L05 

Gonophylla 90 

graminosa 28 

griseata 98 

griseipennis 9 

gypsotis 78 

haastaria 91 

Hamadryas L20 

hectori 1 1 >asvuris) 70 

hectori (Hepialus) .. 129 

helias 64 

Eeliothis 32 

helmsi 112 

hemiptcraria 80 

hemizbna 48 

HePIALID-E 128 

Eepialus 128 

hermione 98 

homomorpha G9 

hoinoseia 21 

humeraria 89 

humerata 41 

humillirna 83 

huttonii 5 

Hybernia 87 

Hydriomena 4G 

Hydhiomenidje 38 

Hy pen ides 34 

Hypenodes 34 

Ichneutica 14 

illiniums 7 

impletus 133 

implcxa 7 

inamanana 57 

i nee j>t a i a 9 

inclarata 47 

inclinataria 40 

inconspicua 31 

/'//. onstans 9 

indicataria 44 

indistincta 85 

indocilis 88 

inductata 44 

infantaria 67 

infensa 23 

innocua 7 

innominata 31 

inoperata 67 

inopiata 47 

insignis (Melanchra) 16 

insignis (Notoreas) . . . 71 

invexata 67 

[pana 94 

iphigenia 104 



itea 107 

isoleuca 72 

juncicoloi 12 

junctilinea 98 

Junonia L09 

kershau-ii ins 

lasioc urriN \... 101 

leptomera 91 

lestevata 39 

Leucania 8 

lichenode- 44 

lignana 26 

Ill/Ill/ IIS, , I 

lignisecta 26 

lignosata 86 

lilacina 36 

limonodes 57 

lithias ........ 17 

lophogramma 59 

lucidata 64 

lupiiiata 83 

Lycaena 119 

LiiiMin: L15 

Lythria 68 

maeulata 44 

mairi 132 

Mamestra, see Melan- 
chra L5 

manxifera 95 

maoi i 22 

maoriata 86 

margarita 6 

mam 116 

maya 17 

mechanitis 72 

megaspilata 55 

Melanchra 15 

Melanchrides 8 

melinata 85 

mcnmuirm 87 

merope 19 

merula 114 

Metacrias 4 

micrasl ra 12 

MlCHOPTERYGIDJE ... 127 

MICROPTERY- 

GINA 127 

lit it is 27 

Miselia 6 

mistata 40 

mixtaria 80 

mnesichola 60 

moderata 9 

MoNOCTENIAD-E ... . 77 

morosa 26 

muriferata 91 

muscosata 41 

mutans 18 

nehata 55 

nelsonaria 90 

nephelias 01 

nereis 13 

Henna 104 



nercata to 

nigcr 78 

nigra 78 

nigrosparsa 96 

niphocrena 74 

niveata 98 

NOCTUIN \. sec 

CARADRININA I 

iSTOTODONTINA ... 38 

Notoreas 71 

iwrff-.-ralriuiliie 134 

nullifera 9 

Nyctemera 2 

Xymi'H Ai.iD.i: 102 

obarata 66 

obtruncata 89 

obtusaria 89 

ochthistk 20 

octans 25 

octias 37 

(Eceticus. 123 

Oiketicns 123 

omiehlias 76 

omicron 22 

omnivora 123 

omnivorus 123 

omoplaca 23 

ophiopa 93 

Orophora 126 

orophyla 58 

oi'phnasa 71 

Orthosia 6 

Orthostixii) K 79 

otaJwitcp. 105 

othello Ill 

oxleyi 119 

Palseomicra 128 

palthidata 92 

panagrata > s 7 

pannularia 86 

PAPILIONINA 101 

paracausta 15 

paradelpha 72 

Paradetis 40 

parora 56 

partheniata 70 

parvulata 45 

pastimria 17 

patularia 86 

pelistis 19 

pelurgata 88 

perductata 47 

perornata 72 

perversa ta 17 

pessota 6 

petrina 78 

petropola 66 

phaula 11 

phcebe 119 

phricias 27 

Phrissogi mus ... 15 

Physetica 8 

pictula 19 

plagifurcata 47 

plena 17 

plexippus 402 



plinthina 4 1 

plurilincata 52 

plurimata 64 

Plusia 34 

l'i.rsiw>.i: 33 

Plusiades 34 

plusiata 7 

pluto 114 

Poliades 6 

pohjchroa 16 

Porina 132 

pi ii'phj lias 41 

praefectata ... 60 

prasinias 65 

jiii in, it<t 80 

prionistis 27 

prionota 47 

productata 84 

propria 11 

Proserpina 104 

proteastis 20 

psamathodes 64 

l'>vi hid i: ... ... 122 

PSYCHINA 122 

pulchella 3 

pulchraria 52 

jiiiiictiliiieotii 67 

pungata 84 

purpurea 8 

purpurifera 49 

purdii 10 

PYRALIDINA 122 

pyramaria 61 

ranata 39 

rauparha 116 

rectilineata 45 

Rhapsa 36 

rhodopleura 19 

RHOPALOCERA, see 

PAPILIONINA 101 

rividaris 17 

rixata 49 

rosearia 57 

fubescens 25 

rubraria 77 

rubropunctaria 51 

rubroviriilans 129 

rufescens 56 

i udiata ... 82 

rudisata 82 

salustius 116 

Samana 76 

Sa'ivhidj: 110 

scabra 96 

schistaria 52 

scriptaria 86 

scissaria 79 

scotosialis 36 

selenophora 35 

Selidosema 82 

Selidosemid<e si 

semialbata 41 

semifissata 59 

semilisata 67 

semisignata 67 

semivittata 13 



SPECIAL INDEX. 



sericea (Agrotis) ... 31 

sericea (Bityla) 29 

servularia 55 

Sestra 89 

signata 134 

similata 50 

simplex 74 

simulans 47 

siria 51 

siris 55 

sistens 9 

squalida 49 

specified 9 

sphceriata 67 

sphagnea 17 

Sphinx 99 

Sphingid.e 99 

sphragitis 43 

steropastis 23 

Sri:i;i;iim.5E 77 

stigmaticata 86 

stinaria 60 

stipata 25 



PA OF. 

sirangulata 48 

strategica (Metacrias) -I 

(Notoreas) 73 

streptophora 88 

suavis 83 

subductata 57 

subitata 44 

subobscurata 66 

subochraria 48 

subpurpnreata 52 

subtentaria 60 

snffusa 30 

suicana 13 

sulpitiata 86 

tartarea 21 

Tatosoma 39 

temperata 9 

Tbeoxena 79 

thoracica 29 

timarata 50 

timora 40 

TINEINA 127 



tipulata 40 

TOETEICINA 127 

toumatou 126 

transitaria 40 

tripbxagma 49 

tuhuata 52 

turbida 16 

umbraculata ... L34 

undosata 54 

undulifera 47 

unica 12 

unicolor 126 

unipuncta 13 

urtica 120 

usitata 83 

ustistriga... 26 

Utetheisa 3 

Vanessa 105 

varians 80 

variolar is 133 

velleda L09 



PAGE 

venipunctatft 64 

Venusia 53 

verriculata 53 

vcxata 133 

vigens 28 

virescens (Chera) ... 9 

virescens (Hepialus) 129 

viridis 17 

uisata 51 

vitiosa 20 

vulcanioa 75 

xanthaspis 54 

Xanthia 7 

Xanthorhoe 56 

ypsilon 30 

ypsilonaria 59 

riczac 93 

zoilus 120 

zopyra 74 



PLATES AND EXPLANATIONS. 



PLAT E I. 

ANATOMICAL. 



1. Outline of a Lepidopterous insect showing the terms employed in describing the various margins and 

angles of the fore- and hind-wings. 

2. View of the under side of the head and first segment of the larva of a Lepidopterous insect. AA, eyes; 

BB, antennae; 1, labium; 22, mandibles; 33, maxilla* : 4, labium; 5, spinneret; a, coxa; />, tro- 
chanter ; c, femur; d, tibia; e, tarsus; /, claw (highly magnified). 

3. Assumed type of neuration of fore-wing of a Lepidopterous insect. (After Merrick.) 

4. Ditto of hind-wing. (After Meyrick.) 

5. Side view of the head of Vanessa gonerilla with proboscis extended. (Imago, Plate XII., fig. 5.) 

6. Ditto with proboscis coiled up. (In both these figures only the basal portions of the antennae are shown.) 

7. Neuration of fore-wing of Anosia erippus. (Imago, Plate XL, fie;. 1.) 

8. Ditto of hind-wine. 

9. Digestive system of a Lepidopterous larva. A. oesophagus; 1>, ventriculus ; I', elavate intestine; 

E, ilium ; H, colon; K, biliary vessels ; 0, spinning vessels. (After Suckow.) 

10. Ditto of perfect insect. N, salivary vessels; ('. sucking stomach; (1, caecum. The rest as before. 

(After Herold.) 

11. Front view of the head of Vanessa gmierilla with the labial palpi removed showing the organs of the 

mouth. AA, eyes ; BB, antenna' (basal portion); /, labrum ; mm, mandibles; pp, maxillary palpi ; 
C, proboscis formed of elongated maxillae (highly magnified). 

12. Neuration of fore-wing of Sphingida. (Deilephila : after Meyrick.) 

13. Ditto hind-wing. (After Meyrick.) 

14. Proleg of caterpillar highly magnified. 

15. Neuration of fore-wing of Chrysophanas salustius. (Imago, Plate XII., figs. 18-21.) 

16. Ditto of hind-wing. 

17. Fasciculate-ciliated antenna of Chloroclystis plinthina. (Imago, Plate VI., fig. 8.) 

18. Serrate antenna of Melanchra eomposita. (Imago, Plate V.. fig. 8.) 

19. Pubescent antenna of Epirranthis alectoraria. (Imago, Plate VIII., ties. 42-47.) 

20. Bi-pectinated antenna of Nyctcmtra annulata. (Imago, Plate IV, lies. 1,2.) 

21. Leg of Agrotis ypsilon. (Imago, Plate V., ties. 35, 36.) 1, coxa; 2, trochanter; 3, femur ; 4, tibia ; 

5, tarsus; (i, claw; SS, spurs. (All these are highly magnified.) 

22. Neuration of fore-wine; of Hepialus rirescens. (Imago, Plate XIJL, figs, lb, 17.) 

23. Ditto of hind-wine. 

24. Head of ditto. 

25. Neuration of fore- wing of Erebia plato. (Imago, Plate XL, figs. 8-10.) Vein 11 absent. 

26. Ditto, veins 11 and 12 concurrent. 

27. Ditto of hind-wine 

28. Neuration of fore-wing of Porina signata. (Imago, Plate XI I P. lie. 15.) 

29. Ditto of hind-wine. 

30. Neuration of fore-wing of (Eceticus omnicorus. (Imago, Plate XI I P, lie 6.) 

31. Ditto of hind-wine. 



PLATE II. 

ANATOMICAL. 



1. Neuration of fore-wing of Metacrias erichrysa. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 5.) 

2. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

3. Head of Nyctemera anmtlata. (Imago, Plate IV., figs. 1, 2.) 

4. Neuration of fore-wing of ditto. 

5. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

6. Neuration of fore-wing of Mamestra nutans. (Imago, Plate IV., figs. 34-36.) 

7. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

8. Head of male of Physetica carulea. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 7.) 

9. Neuration of fore-wing of Erana graminosa. (Imago, Plate V., figs. 24-25.) 

10. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

11. Head of Leucania nullifera. (Imago, Plate IV.. fig. 0.) 

12. Head of Dasypodia selenopliora. (Imago, Plate VI., fig. 4.) 

13. Head of Venusia verriculata. (Imago, Plate VI., figs. 30-31.) 

14. Neuration of fore-wing of Plusia chalcites. (Imago, Plate VI., fig. 3.) 

15. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

16. Neuration of fore-wing of Bhapsa scotosialis. (Imago, Plate VI., figs. 5-6.) 

17. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

18. Head of ditto. 

19. Neuration of fore-wing of Chloroclystis bilineolata. (Imago, Plate VI., figs. 9-10.) 

20. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

21. Neuration of fore-wing of Tatosoma agrionata. (Imago, Plate VI., figs. 26-27.) 

22. Neuration of hind-wing of male. 

23. Neuration of hind-wing of female. 

24. Head of ditto. 

25. Neuration of fore-win- oi Venusia undosata. (Imago, Plate VI., figs. 33-34.) 

26. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

27. Neuration of fore-wing of Paradetis porphyrias. (Imago, Plate VI., tig. 36.) 

28. Neuration of hind-wins;- of male. 

30. Neuration of fore-wing of Asthena pulchraria. (Imago, Plate VI., tigs. 37-38.) 

31. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

32. Head of Hydriomena deltoidata. (Imago, Plate VII., figs. 1-9.) 

33. Neuration of fore-wing of ditto. 

34. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

35. Neuration of fore-wing of Asaphodcs megaspilata. (Imago, Plate VII., figs. 17-20.) 

36. Neuration of hind-wing of dm >. 

37. Neuration of fore-wing of Xanthorhoe clarata. (Imago, Plate VII., figs. 31-32.) 

38. Neuration of hind-win- of ditto. 

39. Neuration of fore-wing of Lythria chrysopeda. (Imago, Plat- VII 1, figs. 33-34.) 

40. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

42. Neuration of fore-wing of Dasyuris partheniata (hind-wings as in XantJwrhoe). (Imago, Plate VIII., 

figs. 30-31.) 

43. Neuration of fore-wing of Notoreas brephos (hind-wings also as in Xanthorhoe). (Imago, Plate VIII. , 

figs. 20-23.) 

44. Neuration of fore-win- of Dichromodes petrina. (Imago, Plate VIII., tig. 39.) 

45. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

46. Neuration of fore-win- of Epirranthis alcctoraria. (Imago, Plate VIII., figs. 42-47.) 

47. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

48. Head of ditto. 

49. Neuration of fore-wing of Leptomeris rubraria. (Imago, Plate VIII., fig. 37.) 

50. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

51. Neuration of fore-wing of Chalastra pclurgata. (Imago, Plate IX., figs. 33-36.) 

52. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto, 

53. Neuration of fore-wing of Sestra humeraria (hind-win- as in Selidosema). (Imago, Plate X., figs. 1-2). 

54. Neuration of fore-wing of Azelina gallaria. (Imago. Plat- X., figs. L3 23.) 

55. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

56. Neuration of fore-win- of Declana floccosa. (Imago, Plate X , figs. 39 17.) 

57. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 

58. Head of ditt >. 

59. Neuration of fore-wing of Seli loscma dejecta 

60. Neuration of hind-wing of .Into. 

61. Neuration of fore-wing of Drepanodes murifi 
(I.!. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 
(13. Neuration of fore-wing of (j-onophylla nelson 
61. Neuration of hind-wing of ditto. 



Ima-o, PL 


ite 


IX.. 


figs. 


l'.i 24.) 


(Imago, 1 


'lat 


■ X. 


, figs 


, 7-12.) 


(Imago, P 


late 


X., 


figs. 


3-6.) 



PLATE III. 

PREPARATORY STAGES. 



1, 2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13, 14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
'20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31, 32. 



Larva? of Vanessa gonerilla. ( Pupae, figs. 31, 32 ; Imago, Plate XII., fig. 5.) 
Larva of Anosia erippus. (Pupa, fig. 27; Imago, Plate XL, fig. 1.) ... 
Larva of Argyrophenga antipodum. (Pupa, fig. 29 ; Imago, Plate XL, fig. 4. 
Larva of Dodonidia helmsi. (Pupa, fig. 28 ; Imago, Plate XL, fig. 14.) 

Larva of Porina signata. (Imago, Plate XIIL, fig. 15.) 

Larva of Melanchra composita. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 8.) 

Larva of Erana graminosa. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 24.) 

Larva of Nyctemera annulata. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 1.) 

Larva of Melanchra homoscia. (Imago, Plate Y., fig. 7.) 

Larva of Orthosia comma. (Imago, Plate V., fig. 27.) 

Larva of Selidosema dejectaria. (Imago, Plate IX., fig. 21.) 

Larvae of Sphinx convolvuli. (Imago, Plate XIIL, fig. 1.) 

Larva of Melanchra mutans. (Imago, Plate IV., fig. 34.) 

Larva of Melanchra vitiosa. ( Imago, Plate 1 V, fig. 42.) 

Larva of Selidosema aristarcha. (Imago, Plate IX.. fig. 17.) 

Larva of Declana atronivea. (Imago, Plate X., fig. 33.) 

Larva of Epirranthis hemipteraria. (Imago, Plate VIIL, fig. 48.) 

a. (Imago, Plate X., fig. 1.) 

fata. (Imago, Plate IX., fig. 34.) 

luctata. (Imago, Plate IX., fig. 6.) 

ns. (Pupa, fig. 30; Imago, Plate XIIL, fig. 1(5.) 
toraria. (Imago, Plate VIIL. fig. 42.) 
omnivorus withdrawn from case. (Imago, Plate XIIL, fig 



zlui 



ale 



Larva of Sestra Inn 
Larva of Chalastra 
Larva of Selidosemc 
Larva of Hepialis r 
Larva of Epirranth 
Larva of (Eceticu 
Larva of ditto m its ease. 
Pupa of Anosia erippus. 
Pupa of Dodonidia helms; 
Pupa of Argyrophen 
Pupa of Hepialus vi 
Pupa' of Vanessa gc 



i Larva, fig 3; Imago, Plate XI.. fig. 1.) 
. (Larva, fig. 5; fmago, Plate XL, fig. 14.) ... 
mtipodum. (Larva, fig. I : Imago, Plate XL, fig. 4.) 
zns. (Larva, fig. 23 ; Imago, Plate XIIL, fig. L6.) 
lla. (Larva, figs. 1, 2; Imago, Plate XII., fig. 5). 



6.) 



PACK 

105 

102 

110 

112 

134 

22 

28 

2 

21 

7 

86 

99 

18 

20 

85 

95 

80 

89 

ss 

84 
129 

so 
123 

102 
112 
110 
129 

105 



PI gut e III 




**V##&*^ 



/v 





r ^^ 









^ 



i 



West .Newman okromo 









P L A T E T V 








CARADRININA. 








— ~— 


FIG. 
1. 


Nyctemei 


a annulate 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 9.) 


2. 




2 




3. 


Utetheisc 


pulchella 




4. 


Metacria 


s strategica 3 




5. 




erichrysa 3 




(5. 


,, 


hut tmi il 3 




7. 


Physetica carulea 3 




8. 


Lcucank 


griseipennis 2 




9. 


,, 


nullifera 2 




10. 




micrastra 3 




11. 




purdii 3 




12. 




atristriga 3 




13. 




propria 3 




14. 


,, 


acontistis 3 




15. 




plum In 3 ... 




16. 




ii lop, i 3 ... 




17. 


,, 


itiiicu J ... 




18. 




arotis 2 




11). 


,, 


Sll/cilllll 3 




20. 




2 




21. 




semi't Mate 3 




•2-2. 




2 




23. 




blenheimensis 2 ... 




•24. 




unipuncta 2 ... 




25. 


Ichn'eutu 


a ceraimias 3 




2(5. 


,, 


2 




27. 




dione, n. sp. 3 ... 




28. 


Melanch 


■a pun in, a, fa 3 ■■■ 




28a 




2 




2'.). 




insignia 3 




30. 


,, 


2 




81. 


,, 


maya, a. sp. 2 ... 




32. 


,, 


/</<»« 3 




33. 




lithias 3 




34. 


,, 


in a In ns 3 (Larva 


Plate III., fig. 15.) 


35. 


,, 


2 




3(3. 


,, 


3 variety 




37. 




pirlu/il 3 




38. 




rhodopleura ? ... 




39. 




coeleno, a. sp. 3 




40. 


,, 


proteastis 3 ... 




12. 


,, 


vitiosa V (Larva, 


Plate III.. Bg. L6.) 







Plaxe [V. 




^*«La. - ''-sii-* 



vi** *. 



■5'V* : 



38 



r-; - >/# 





.'■• , fa( -7 



-■ i 



J**~ 



PLATE V. 

CARADRININA. 



Melanchra octrois, n. sp. 

merope, n. sp. 3 
pelistis 3 



5. 




diatmeta 3 


6. 




tartarea 3 


7. 




homoscia 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 10.) 


8. 




composita 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 7.) 


9. 


,, 


? 


10. 




steropastis 3 


11. 


,, 


? 


12. 




illfl'll Sit I 


13. 




omoplaca 2 


14. 




alcyone, n. sp. 3 


15. 




asterope, n. sp. ? 


16. 




do tutu 2 


17. 


„ 


stipata 5 


18. 


,, 


rubescens 3 


19. 


,, 


lit) mi mi 3 


20. 




iististrif/a 3 


20a 




? 


21. 




prionistis 3 


22. 




phricias 3 


23. 




cacn/linn 3 


24. 


Erana gr 


iminosa 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 8.) 


25. 




? 


26. 


Miselia p 


ssota 3 


27. 


Orthosia 


omnia 3 (Larva, Plate ILL, fig. 11.) 


28. 




,, ? 


29. 


i 


minimis 3 


30. 


Melanchr 


' agorastis ? 


31. 


Orthosia 


narganta $ 


32. 


Xanthia j 


urpurea 3 


33. 


Bityla de 


igurata 3 


34. 


so 


icea 3 


35. 


Agrotisyi 


isilon 3 


36. 




5 


37. 


« 


Imirationis 3 


38. 


SI 


ricea ? 


.'19. 


il 


nommata, ... sp. 3 


40. 


11,1 in/Ills 


armigera 3 


41. 




2 


42. 


Melanchr 


i omicron, n. sp. 3 


43. 




ilisjiimjriis 3 



I 







V 



m '?w>' 



-. 



- 



V 



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PLATE VI. 

CARADRININA AND NOTODONTINA. 



Cahadkinina. 



1. Agrotis carapachoides 3 

2. Gosmodes elegans 2 

3. Plusia chalcites 3 

4. Dasypodia selenophora 3 

5. Bhapsa scotosialis 3 

6. „ „ 2 

7. Bhapsa octias 2 



8. Ghloroclystis plinthina 3 
9, 10. ,, bilineolata varieties 

11. „ www 2 

12. ,, dryas 3 

13, 14. ,, sphragitis varieties 

15, 113. „ lichenodes varieties 

17. ., indicataria 3 ... 
17a. „ ., 2 

18. ,, maculata, n. sp. ... 

19. Phrissogonus denotatus 3 

20. Ghloroclystis antarctica, n. sp. 

21. „ aristias J 

22. „ „ 2 
2:-!, 24. EVu/a glaucata varieties 

25. Tatosoma lestevata 3 

26. ,, agrionata 3 ... 



NOTODONTINA. 



28. 

2'. I. 

30. 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 
39 12 

43. 

44. 
45, HI. 

47. 

48. 



timora 3 

? 

Venusia verriculata 3 ... 
2 

xanthaspis 3 

„ undomta 3 

Euchoeca rubropunctaria 2 
Paradetis porphyrias 3 
Asthena pulchraria 3 

Asthena schistaria varieties ... 
Hydriomena gobiata 3 

subochraria varieties 
prionota 



Plate VI 



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PLATE VII. 

NOTODONTINA. 



1-9. 


Hydriomena deltoidata varieties 


10. 






hemizona... 




11. 






rixata ... 




12. 






purpurifera 




13. 






callichlora 




14. 


, 




si in iliitu ... 




15. 


, 




arida 




10. 


Asaplu 


des 


siris 2 




17-10. 






megaspilata 3 


varieties ... 


19a, 20. 






2 


varieties 


21. 






abrogata 3 




'22. 


Xanthc 


rho 


rosearia 3 




23. 






2 




24. 


„ 




orophylla 3 




25 






2 




20. 






semifissata 3 




27. 






2 




28. 






chlamydota 




29. 






st ina rin 3 




30. 


,, 




prcefectata 2 




31. 






clarata 3 ■■■ 




32. 


,, 




2 




33. 


,, 




cataphracta 3 




34. 






2 




35. 






beata 3 




36. 






,. 2 




37. 






cegrota 3 ■■■ 




38. 






lucidata 3 




30. 






mnesichola 3 




4(1. 






helias 2 ... 




41. 






prasinias 2 




42. 






chionogramma 


3 


43. 








2 


44. 






chorica ... 




15. 






obarata ... 




16. 






limonodes 3 




47. 






lophogramma 


3 


is. 








2 


40. 


,, 




adonis 3 ... 








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PLATE VIII. 

NOTODONTINA. 



1. 


Xanthorhoe bulbulata 3 


2, 2a 




cineraria varieties . 


3. 


Notoreas insignis 3 


4-8. 




perornata varieties ., 


9-11. 




mechanitis varieties .. 


12-14. 




paradelpha varieties .. 


15. 




strategica ? 


16. 




callicrena ? ... 


17. 




ferox 3 


18, L9. 




zopyra 3 varieties .. 


20-28. 




breplws varieties 


24. 


,, 


vulcanica 


25. 


,, 


omichlias 3 ... 


26. 




simplex, n. sp. 2 


27. 




isoleuca 9 


28. 


Dasyun 


: .s enysii 1 


29. 




anceps 3 


80. 




partheniata 3 


31. 




2 


32. 




hectori 3 


33. 


Lythria 


chrysopeda 3 ... 


34. 




? 


35. 




euclidiata 


36. 


Samana 


falcatella 2 


87. 


Leptomt 


"■is rubraria 3 


38. 




J 


39. 


Dichron 


wdespetrina 


40. 






41. 


Theox'e'n 


a sciss«riii 


42- 17. 


Epirmn 


this alectoraria varietie 


4s. 




hemipteraria 3 (. 


49. 




5 


50. 


Selidose; 


mafenerata 3 


51. 




? 



(Larva, Plate III., fig. 24.) 
(Larva, Plate IIP. fig. 10.) 



PAGE 

68 
67 
71 
72 
72 
72 
73 
73 
74 
74 
75 
75 
76 
74 
72 
69 
69 
70 

70 
68 

68 
76 



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PLATE IX. 

NOTODONTINA. 



1. Selidnsema rudiata 3 ... 

2. „ „ 2 

3. ,, mavis 3 

4. „ „ 5 

5. „ humillima, n. sp. 3 

6-10. ,, productata 3 varieties. (Larva, Plate III., fig. 22.) 

11-14. „ „ 2 varieties 

15. ,, melinata 3 ... 

1«. „ „ 2 

17. ,, aristarcha 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 17.) 

18. „ „ 2 

19-22. ,, dejectaria 3 varieties. (Larva, Plate III., fig. 12.) 

28, 24. ,, ,, 2 varieties 
25-28. ,, panagrata 3 varieties 

29, 30. ,, ,, 2 varieties 

31. Hybernia indocilis 3 

32. ,, ,,2 

33,34. Ghalastra pelurgata 3 varieties. (Larva, Plate III., fig. 21.) 

35, 36. ,, ,, 2 varieties 

37. Sestra flexata 2 



PAGE 

82 



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PLATE X. 

NOTODONTINA. 



1, 2. 


Sest 


■a humeraria varieties. (Larva, Plate III., fig. 20.) 


3, 4. 


Gonophylla nelsonaria 3 varieties 


5,6. 






,, $ varieties 


7-10. 


Drepan 


)des muriferata 3 varieties ... 


11, 12. 




,, 


? varieties 


13-20. 


A teUna 


gallaria 3 varieties ... 


21-23. 






,, $ varieties 


24. 






fortinata 3 


25. 




, 


2 


2(5. 






ophiopa 3 


27. 






,, 3 variety 


28. 






? 


29,31, 


ll.V. 


Ipana leptomera 3 varieties 


30. 






? 


32. 


Dcclana griseata, n. sp. 


33. 




, 


atronivea 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 18.) 


34. 




, 


2 


35. 




, 


egregia 3 


36. 






hermione, n. sp. S 


37. 






junctiUnca 3 


38. 






? 


39-43. 






Jioccosa 3 varieties 


44-47. 




, 


,, ? varieties 



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PLATE XI. 

PAP1LI0NINA. 

1. Anosia erippus 2 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 3; Pupa, fig. '27.) 102 

2. ,, ,, under side. 

3,4. Argyrophenga antipodum 3 varieties. (Larva, Plate III., fig. 4 ; Pupa, fig. 29.) ... 110 

5. „ „ 2 

6, 7. ,, ,, under sides. 

8. Erebia pluto 3 114 

9. „ „ 2 

10. „ „ under side. 

11. Erebia butleri 3 115 

12. „ „ 2 

13. ,, ,, under side. 

14. Dodonidia Jielmsi 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 5 ; Pupa, fig. 28.) 112 

15. ,, ,, under side. 

16. Junonia velleda 109 

17. ., ., under side. 







Pla/be XL 








PLATE XIT. 

PAPILIONINA. 



FIG. 






PAGE 


1. 


Vanessa cardui 


... 108 


•2. 


,, ,, under side. 




3. 


itea 


... 107 


4. 


,, ,, under side. 




5. 


gonerilla. (Larva, Plate III., figs. 1 and 2 ; Pupa, figs. 31, 32.) 


... 105 


f>. 


,, under side. 




7. 


Anosia bolina S 


... 104 


s. 


? 




9. 


under side. 




10. 


Lijccena . phcsbe 3 


... 119 


11. 


., ., under side. 




1-2. 


oxleyi, under side. 


... 119 


13, 14. 


Chrysophanus boldenarum 3 varieties 


... 118 


15. 




,, under side of 3 




l(j. 




1 




17. 




, ,, under side of ? 




18. 




salustius 3 


... 11(3 


19. 




? 




20. 




, ,, under side 




21. 




, ., under side of variety (upper side, Plate XIII.. fig. 2.) 




■1-2. 




enysii 3 


,.. 117 


•j:;. 




2 




•24. 




under side. 





i 



Pla.te.XIL 




WestKewnaan chr 



PAGE 



PLATE XIII. 

NOTODONTINA, PAPILIONINA, PSYCHINA, AND MICROPTERYQINA. 

NOTODONTINA. 

1. Sphinx convulvuli. (Larva, Plate III., figs. 13 and 14.) 99 

Papilionina. 
!-5. Varieties of Ghrysophanus salustius ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 116 

PSYCHINA. 

6. CEceticus omnivorus 3 (Larva, Plate III., figs. 25, 26.) 123 

7. Orophora unicobr 3 126 

MlCROPTEKYGINA. 

8. Porina dinodes 3 132 

9. ,, enysii 3 ... ... ... •■■ ■•• ••• ••• ••• ••■ ••• ■•■ 133 

10 ? 

LI. ,, characterifera 3 133 

L2. ,, cervinata 3 ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■■ ••• ■•• 133 

13. .. despecta 3 134 

14. ., wmbraculata 3 134 

15. ,, signata 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 6.) 134 

Hi. Hepialus virescens 3 (Larva, Plate III., fig. 23 ; Pupa, fig. 30.) 129 

17. „ „ 5 

18. Porina cervinata ? variety ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 133 



PW.eXIII 




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